YEAR OF STUDY I
(G) Grammar: Indirect Speech
Special Questions in Indirect Speech
Instructions and Advice
(SR)Supplementary reading: A good workspace
Health and safety
(L) Listening Safety in a computer classroom
(S) Speaking: Monitor specifications
Are you a responsible mobile user?
(G) Grammar (block I):
Indirect Speech (Reported Speech)
Transform general questions and superlatives into the Reported Speech:
1. The customer asks: “Is it an ink-jet printer?”
2. The vendor asked: “Will you take this monitor?”
3. The teacher asked: “Have you translated this text?”
4. Dick asked: “Ann, do you have a monochrome monitor?”
6. The Instructor warned: “Don’t sit too close to the screen!”
7. Peter recommends: “Consider this processor. It’s more powerful.”
8. Alan asked: “Can you see dots on the screen, Jack?”
9. The client: “Is this a flat panel liquid crystal display (LCD)?”
10. The student: “Is this sequence repeated 50 times per second?”
11. Jane asked: “Kate, listen to some piece of advice, please.”
12. The teacher warned: “Don’t use the monitor that distorts the image, Pete.”
Translate the sentences into Ukrainian:
1. My friend wants to know if I can change the settings of the display.
2. The students asked whether portable computers used a flat panel liquid crystal display instead of a picture tube.
4. A customer is interested to know whether a monitor is controlled by a separate circuit board known as a display adaptor.
5. I was asked to stay an arm’s length away from this device.
6. He asked the vendor to show quite another display.
7. She asked me if I had been explained that monitors specifications.
8. She asked the doctor if it was harmful to spend 2 hours without breaks in front of the monitor.
9. I wonder whether you have heard about new chip technologies.
10. The teacher advised the student to use a flat panel monitor.
Transform Direct Speech into Indirect one:
Example: She said: “I can’t work with a scanner” (to admit)
She admitted she couldn’t work with a scanner.
1. Nick says: “I understood this task”. (to be sure)
2. Ann said: “I will learn all these words”. (to promise)
3. Dick said: “Computers appeared last century”. (find out)
4. A teacher said: “There are many different ways to count”. (to remind)
5. My friend said: “We know you are a polyglot”. (reply)
6. A student wrote:
“I have never been to
7. They said: “We were doing our experiment”. (reported)
Read mini dialogues and retell them in Indirect Speech:
1.Mary: “Do you know that flat panel monitors save much space?”
2.Mother: “Jack, don’t sit too close to the screen, you’ll spoil your eyes.”
Jack: “Don’t worry, mum. I know about it.”
3.A vendor: “Buy a protective filter that cuts the radiation down.”
A customer: “Can you show me one?”
4.Pete: “Are flat panel monitors easier for eyes?”
A manager: “They are. They consume less energy and have fewer emissions than traditional CRT monitors.”
5.Nick: “Tell me, please, is it worth buying a more expensive monitor?”
A shop-assistant: “It depends. If you use a lot of high-end graphic intensive functions, take more expensive one.”
6.Assistant: “Do you need any help?”
John: “Yes, I do. I’m looking for a personal computer. Have you got any fairly basic ones?”
Translate the following sentences into English:
1. Продавець запитав, чи потрібна нам допомога.
2. Він відповів, що ніколи не бачив такого монітора.
3. Лікар порадив мені не сидіти перед комп’ютером довго.
4. Він спитав, чи довго я вчора сидів за комп’ютером.
5. Мене попросили показати роботу цього приладу.
6. Він пояснив, що не зможе вирішити цю проблему самостійно.
7. Він запитав, чи я впевнений, що цей тип монітора кращий.
8. Мені порадили купити захисний фільтр.
9. Цікаво, а пласкопанельні монітори корисніші для очей?
10. Я знав, що мій друг придбав дисплей на рідких кристалах.
After the information has been processed by the CPU we can see the results on the screen. This is also called a monitor or visual display unit (VDU).
Read the text and try to guess the meaning of any new words below. Refer to the Glossary if necessary:
dot pixel display resolution cathode ray tube electron beam scan (verb) hertz refresh rate flicker bit-mapped visualize
The characters and pictures that we see on the screen are made up of dots, also called picture elements (pixels). The total number of pixels in which the display is divided both horizontally and vertically is known as the resolution. If the number of pixels is very large, we obtain a high resolution display and therefore a sharp image. If the number of pixels is small, a low resolution is produced.
Typical resolutions are 640 x 480 or 1,024 x 768 pixels. The diagrams show how pixel density affects the image: a larger number of pixels gives a much clearer image. The cathode ray tube of the monitor is very similar to that of a TV set. Inside the tube there is an electron beam which scans the screen and turns on or off the pixels that make up the image. The beam begins in the top left corner, and scans the screen from left to right in a continuous sequence, similar to the movement of our eyes when we read, but much faster.
This sequence is repeated 50, 70 or 85 times per second, depending on the system. If the rate of this repetition is low, we can perceive a flickering, unsteady screen, which can cause eye fatigue. However, a fast-moving 75 Hz 'refresh rate' eliminates this annoying flicker.
What we see on the screen is created and stored in an area of RAM, so that there is a memory cell allocated to each pixel. This type of display is called bit-mapped. On monochrome monitors, bits 0 are visualized as white dots, and bits 1 as black dots.
On colour displays, there are three electron guns at the back of the monitor's tube. Each gun shoots out a beam of electrons for each of the primary colours: red, green and blue. These electrons strike the inside of the screen which is coated with substances called phosphors that glow when struck by electrons.
Three different phosphor materials are used - one each for red, green and blue. To create different colours, the intensity of each of the three electron beams is varied.
The monitor is controlled by a separate circuit board, known as the display adaptor, which plugs into the motherboard of the computer. Different boards drive different types of displays. For example, the VGA (video graphics array) card has become a standard for colour monitors.
Now flat-screen monitors arc fashionable. They are inherently flat, and therefore require less space. In addition, they give crisp, clear images and eliminate screen flicker.
Portable computers use a flat liquid-crystal display (LCD) instead of a picture tube. An LCD uses a grid of crystals and polarizing filters to show the image. The crystals block the light in different amounts to generate the dots in the image.
Read the text again and answer these questions:
1 According to the writer, what is the importance of 'pixel resolution'?
2 Which unit of frequency is used to measure the refresh rate of a monitor?
3 In the writer's opinion, why can a low refresh rate produce eye fatigue?
4 What substance is hit by electrons in a monitor?
5 What is the standard display system for many PCs?
6 What does 'LCD' stand for? What type of computers use LCD displays?
(S) Speaking (block I)
Describe the monitor of your computer to another student. Use these questions:
· Is it a monochrome or a colour monitor?
§ What size is the screen?
§ Does it have a cathode ray tube or a flat LCD screen?
§ How can you change the picture using the controls?
· Does it produce a high quality image?
The specifications of Superview (Monitor A) may be explained like this:
1 This is a flat-panel Liquid Crystal Display.
2 The screen size
3 You get a resolution of 1024 by 768 pixels.
4 It offers support for 16.7 million saturated colours.
5 This digital display has a 75 hertz refresh rate. It never flickers (the images are bright, sharp, and distortion-free).
6 You can change the orientation of the display, adjusting your viewing angle back and forth.
7 It has a built-in power feature that saves a lot of energy consumption.
Use the example above to help you describe Monitor B.
Decide which words are being defined in these extracts from the dictionary:
1. One of the small units that make up an image on a computer or television screen.
2. Flat-screen technology using noble gases; popular with movie fans.
3. The most common computer display technology, made of two glass plates with …
4. Card that plugs into a computer to give it display capabilities
5. Device used to show images on a wall or large screen.
Complete this conversation in a computer shop by typing in words or phrases from the box:
Sales assistant: Can I help you with anything?
Anna: Yes, please. I need a new (1)________ drive.
Sales assistant: OK. Are you looking for an internal drive or an (2) ________ one?
Anna: Well, I need it for moving files between home and work.
Sales assistant: Sure. Well, you’ve basically got two options. If you need a lot of (3) ________ for secondary (4) ________, then you could try this Freecom drive. It (5) ________ 750GB. That’s probably enough to (6) ________ your whole computer many times over. You’d probably have lots of space left for archiving any files that you don’t need on a day-to-day basis. This one’s £140.
Anna: That’s a little expensive, to be honest. And I probably don’t need 750GB. My home computer only has a 120GB drive! And it looks a bit heavy to carry around.
Sales assistant: In that case, you need something more (7) ________. This might be what you’re looking for: the ATMT HD160 Ultra-Portable. It’s only 20GB, but it’s light and relatively cheap – only £80.
Anna: That sounds perfect. I’ll take it. Is it already (8) ________?
Sales assistant: Yes, it’s all ready to use. Just bear a couple of things in mind if you’re carrying it between home and work a lot. Inside the drive there is a stack of metal (9) ________ that are used to store the information. (10) ________ move the disk while the platters are spinning – you’ll be able to hear them – or the drive could suffer a (11) ________. That’s when the (12) ________ head touches the disk surface.
Anna: Right, OK. Anything else I need to know?
Sales assistant: Just a couple of things. You (13) ________ unplug the drive without using the ‘Remove hardware’ command first. And you (14) ________ check the drive regularly for viruses, especially if you’re moving it between machines.
Anna: OK, well thanks for all your help. Now where do I go to pay?
(G) Grammar (block II):
Special Questions in Indirect Speech
Transform Direct speech into Indirect one:
Example: “What is printing?” Alex asked.
Alex asked what printing was.
Sally asks: “Mary, what type of printer do you have?”
Sally asks Mary what type of printer she has.
1. “How many computing centers are there in your University?” my friend asked/asks.
2. “What parts does a computer consist of?” the teacher asked/asks.
3. “What did you use this device for?” he asks/asked.
4. “Where have you been today?” the mother asks/asked.
5. “Why don’t you study German, Linda?” John asks/asked.
6. “Where are you going for your holidays, guys?” I ask/asked.
7. “What type of printer is this?” Kate asks/asked.
8. “How far is it to your University?” My neighbour asks/asked.
9. “Which of your friends bought jet printer?” Peter asks/asked.
10. “How long have you been using this computer?” the professor asks/asked.
11. “What will you do with it, Sam?” Dolly asks/asked.
12. “What must be taken into account when choosing a printer?” the customer asks/asked.
Translate the sentences into Ukrainian:
1. My friend wondered where I had been all this time.
2. The professor asks who hasn’t done the home task.
3. My mother wanted to know when my last exam would take place.
4. The vendor asked me which of the printers I preferred.
5. A customer asks how much this printer costs.
6. Sally asked John what the final stage in creating a document was.
7. The professor asks how printing technology is evolving.
8. The teacher asked how jet printers operated.
9. Jane asks where printers are used.
10. Dan asked me why I hadn’t come back the previous day.
11. I wonder where he will enter next year.
12.The buyer wanted to know when those printers would be on sale.
Translate the following sentences into English:
1. Я запитав, котрий з принтерів найдорожчий.
2. Мій друг цікавиться, де продають лазерні принтери.
3. Професор запитав, чому я не виконав домашнє завдання.
4. Він поцікавився, хто ще знає, як працює принтер.
5. Лінда питає, як довго він вивчає англійську мову.
6. Покупець запитав, скільки це коштуватиме.
7. Мені не сказали, чому такий сканер дорожчий.
Translate the sentences into Ukrainian:
1. The professor asked the students if they had prepared for the exams.
2. He was sure that his idea wouldn’t work.
3. They promised they would have done the lab work by the end of the week.
4. She said she couldn’t help me.
5. My friend wondered where I had bought this printer.
6. I asked my friend how much time it would take to print that document.
7. Didn’t you promise that you would return the book in time?
8. He confirmed that all the texts had been translated.
9. The vendor told John not to buy that computer.
10. They knew the experiment was being carried out.
11. They were asked to wait in the next room.
12. We were denied that the printer was out of order.
Tony Clark, a lecturer in computer ergonomics, is talking to some students about health and safety in a computer classroom. Listen and complete the sentences below. Then decide where they should go in the pictures below:
1. You should get a good chair, one that...............................
2. Position the keyboard........................................................
3. Position the monitor. eye level, or just.............................. .
4. A tilt-and-swivel display lets you...................................... .
5. You should stay an arm's length away from..................... .
6. If you work in a room with a lot of computers, sit........ ….
Do you know…
A good workspace
Your chair: Your chair should be fully adjustable, and be able to be moved up or down. It should have an adjustable back.
Your screen: Your screen should be fully adjustable so that your eyes are at the same height as the top of the screen. You may wish to use a filter attached to the screen to reduce glare. If the screen is badly focused, to bright or appears to flicker, then get a qualified technician to take a look at it!
Your keyboard: Use a good keyboard and you may also wish to use a wrist pad to relieve pressure on your wrists.
Your feet: You may wish to use a footpad to rest your feet on while using the computer.
Your mouse: Use a mouse mat to make the mouse easier to use. Ensure that you have enough space to comfortably use the mouse. If your arm or figures become tired or painful, when using the mouse, take a break and do something else!
Breaks: Take frequent breaks when using a computer!
Other factors: Make sure that the area that you are using the computer in is adequately lit and well ventilated. Ventilation is especially important if you are using a laser printer, which may produce ozone when printing.
Health and safety
Make sure that cables are safely secured - You should always use the power cables that were supplied with your computer or cables of a similar quality. Make sure that the cables are safely secured at the back of the desk and that you have power points located near the desk. If your desk has a cable ducting system make sure that, you use it. Avoid long trailing cables as yourself or other people can easily trip over them and cause injury to yourself or others. Apart from personal injury, accidentally pulling out a power cable could cause your computer to loose power and you will loose data as a result. Network cables tend to be delicate and easily damaged and the most common cause of failure to log onto a network server is that someone has accidentally dislodged or damaged the network cables.
Make sure that power points are not overloaded - Overloading of a power point is dangerous and a potential fire hazard! If you need more power sockets, have them properly installed by a qualified electrician!
Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) - Often referred to as RSI. This is a condition caused by constant use of the keyboard or mouse. You should take regular breaks to help avoid this type of injury. You may want to consider the use of a pad that you can rest your arms on which will help to some extent.
More information: http://www.rsi-center.com
Glare from screens - You should take regular breaks to avoid constantly staring at the screen and straining your eyes. You should consider using the best (i.e. most expensive) monitor that you or your company can afford. The better the monitor the better the screen resolution and the higher the refresh rate. For detailed work, you should also consider using a large screen rather than the 'standard' 14" or 15" screens that are in common use. In many countries, your employer has a legal duty to pay for eye tests for employees as and when they request it.
Bad posture - When sitting at your computer you should have a monitor at eye level that can be adjusted to suit you. In addition, you may want to consider a footrest.
Why do you need to back up your computer? - The most important thing that you store on your computer is information. Often the contents of a hard disk can represent years of work. If the hard disk stops working one day you could lose all those years of work. For this reason it is VITAL that you take regular backups of the information that is stored on the computer. In large organizations this backup procedure is normally performed automatically by your computer support team, where the data is normally held on a centralized, networked computer.
In smaller organizations, it is often up to the individual to organize some sort of data backup. If nothing else is available, copy your files to a floppy disk and make sure that these backup disks are stored away from the computer, ideally off-site. If there is a fire and your office burns down, if your backup disks are stored next to the computer they too will be incinerated!
Why you should use “off-site” storage? - It is no good backing up your data, only to leave the item that you backed up to next to the computer. If someone steals your computer, it is likely that they will also steal your backups if you leave them next to the computer! If you have a fire, then again you will lose your backups if the backups are stored next to the computer. Ideally, backups should be stored off-site at a safe location. At the very least, consider storing your backups in a fireproof safe, which will give some protection against fire damage.
Beware of “open files” - You should perform backups at night. If you backup your computer during the day (when you are using programs on the computer) then any program or data files that are in use at the time of the backup will not be backed up. The backup program will skip these 'open' files.
Passwords - If your computer has a password that prevents other users from accessing it then do NOT give this password to anybody else. Do not write the password on a card and prop this up next to the monitor and above all do not attempt to hide your access passwords on the underside of your desk (this is the first place most criminals would look if trying to break into your system). Make sure you do not forget your passwords; in many cases, data cannot be recovered once the password is lost.
The Importance of shutting down your computer - When you are using a Windows based system it is important to remember that just switching off the computer or losing power due to a power cut (power outage) can cause loss of data. To protect against this you should save your work regularly. Many programs have a facility that automatically saves your work, say every 10 minutes (or any time interval that you specify).
Some operating systems, such as the later versions of Windows 95 and also Windows NT have a facility that will automatically detect that the computer was not properly shut down the last time it was used. If this situation is detected, then a special recovery program will be run that will attempt to fix any damage caused by the power cut.
When using Windows 95 or Windows NT, you MUST always use the shutdown command (located on the Start menu) to close down the operating system, before switching off the power.
What is a UPS? A UPS (Un-interruptible Power Supply) is a device that you can attach to your computer that will guard against power cuts (or indeed someone tripping over your power cable and pulling the plug out!). It contains batteries that will keep your computer alive long enough for you to use the shutdown command and turn off the computer in the proper way. This is especially important for PCs on a network that might provide data for many users on the network.
Electrical surge protection - The voltage that is supplied to your computer via the power cable can vary from time to time, and there are occasional power surges. Power surge protection devices are readily available and offer low cost protection again these occasional power surges.
In the example illustrated the power surge protection is built into a power adaptor allowing a number of plugs to be plugged into the adaptor.
· Good ventilation
· Clean environment
· Stable, vibration free surface
· Drinking and eating over the keyboard
· Heat, Cold
· Do not move the system while it’s switched on, doing so could damage the hard disk inside the machine.
· Do not just switch the computer off at the mains! Follow the correct shutdown procedure or data could be lost.
· Do not place objects on top of monitors. This could block the ventilation holes and cause it to overheat.
· Do not place floppy disks near monitors. Monitors produce a strong electromagnetic field, which can damage floppy disks.
What to do if the computer breaks down - If you are working within a large organization, you should be aware of the company’s policy if the computer suddenly breaks down. Many large companies have a special computer support department and you should make sure that you know how to contact them in case of emergency.
In many smaller organizations, the situation is much less formalized. If you are not qualified to make repairs on the computer, do NOT attempt to open the computer case and investigate. This is especially true of the computer monitor, inside which, are many components operating at VERY HIGH VOLTAGES, which can kill! If in doubt, get a qualified technician to fix the problem.
Prior to contacting your computer support staff you may (if authorized by your organization) check that the various external components, such as the mouse, keyboard, monitor and network connections are in fact properly connected to the back of the computer. A very common complaint to support groups is that the screen is not working. You may wish to check that someone has not inadvertently switched off the screen, prior to ringing the support group! One of the more common reasons for a network not working is that someone (maybe an overnight cleaner) has accidentally pulled the network cable out of the back of a computer.
(S) Speaking (block II)
Are you a responsible mobile user?
Mobiles can be very annoying for other people and they can even be dangerous in certain situations.
Look at the information on http://www.indianchild.com/cell_phone_etiquette.htm and learn how to become a more responsible mobile user.
After reading the information, decide if the following pieces of advice are True or False. If they are false, correct them:
1. Switch off your mobile or turn it to vibrate when you are at a meeting, in church, at the cinema, etc.
2. Never use it in mobile-free zones.
3. Don't talk and drive unless you have a hands-free mobile.
4. Don't shout while you're speaking. Remember that you can't judge how loud your voice is to the other person while you are using a mobile, and hearing a loud voice can be annoying for other people.
5. You can talk as much as you want if you are talking to friends.
6. Use your mobile to phone your friends any time, anywhere.
7. Inform others if you are going to use your mobile and get their permission if appropriate.
Unscramble the letters to make features of mobile phones:
(G) Grammar (block III):
Instructions and Advice
Rewrite the sentences about what you should do to protect your eyes. Use modal auxiliary verbs in your sentences:
1. Do not stare at the screen for long periods of time.
2. Avoid placing the monitor so that it reflects a source of bright light, such as a window.
3. Keep the screen clean to prevent distorting shadows.
4. If you work in an office with a large number of computers, don't sit too close to the sides or backs of the monitors.
5. Buy a protective filter that cuts down the ELF (extremely low frequency) emissions.