YEAR OF STUDY I
(G) Grammar: Sequence of Tenses
Comparatives and Superlatives
(SR)Supplementary reading: Output devices
(L) Listening Scanners
(S) Speaking: Why we study foreign languages
Choosing a computer
(G) Grammar (block I):
Sequence of Tenses
Translate the following sentences, paying attention to the use of tense-forms.
1. We know we can capture our favourite pictures using 3 different input devices now.
We knew we could use this information then.
2. He is sure that a scanner “sees” images and converts the printed text into codes.
He was sure that a scanner “saw” images and converted the printed text into codes.
3. She says she will use a camera tomorrow.
She said she would use a camera the next day.
4. It means he has bought a digital camera too.
It meant that he had bought a digital camera too.
5. They promise they will have done this work by the end of the week.
They promised they would have done that work by the end of the week.
6. You understand I am not right.
You understood I was not right.
7. My friend denies he knew about this program.
My friend denied he had known about this program.
8. I am told he speaks 3 foreign languages.
I was told he spoke 3 foreign languages.
9. He finds out she has been studying French for 2 years.
He found out she had been studying French for 2 years.
10. She confirmes she was at this conference yesterday.
She confirmed she had been at that conference the prevous day
Put in the correct tense form:
1. He wasn’t sure they (come) the next day.
2. She (to say) she doesn’t know German.
3. You (know) he had
come back from
4. I am sure that they (to live) in our town.
5. My friend (to understand) what she had been told.
6. He said he (not to have) a scanner at home.
7. It doesn’t mean we (to be) present at this party next Sunday.
8. I promised I (to finish) that job.
9. He (to say) he didn’t smoke at all.
10. I was said he just (to arrive).
Translate the following sentences into English:
1. Вчені з’ясували, що краще використати один комп’ютер, ніж сотню людей.
2. Він знав, що цей блок вбудований в один мікропроцесорний чіп.
3. Вона була впевнена, що зможе придбати такий комп’ютер.
4. Мені не сказали, що Ви вже чекаєте на мене.
5. Він каже, що йому часто задають це питання.
6. Ви впевнені, що його про це попередили?
7. Він не заперечував, що користувався вашим принтером.
8. Ви розумієте, що Вам кажуть?
9. Вони не впевнені, що Ви знаєте цю програму добре.
10. Я підтвердив, що вони не вміють користуватися цифровою камерою.
You can capture your favourite pictures using three different input devices: a scanner, a digital camera, or a camcorder. Use the information below to answer these questions:
1. Which device is used to input text and graphic images from a printed page?
2. How does a colour scanner work?
3. Do digital cameras use film? How do they store photographs?
4. Which device would you use to take digital video?
5. What kind of software is used to manipulate video clips on the computer?
6. What do you think are the benefits of using scanners and cameras at home and in business?
What does a scanner do?
A scanner 'sees' images and converts the printed text or pictures into electronic codes that can be understood by the computer.
With a flatbed scanner, the paper with the image is placed face down on a glass screen similar to a photocopier. Beneath the glass are the lighting and measurement devices. Once the scanner is activated, it reads the image as a series of dots and then generates the digitized image that is sent to the computer and stored as a file.
A colour scanner operates by using three rotating lamps, each of which has a different coloured filter: red, green and blue. The resulting three separate images are combined into one by appropriate software.
What does a digital camera do?
A digital camera takes photos electronically and converts them into digital data (binary codes made up of 1s and 0s). It doesn't use the film found in a normal camera; instead it has a special light-sensitive silicon chip. Photographs are stored in the camera's memory before being sent to the computer. Some cameras can be also connected to a printer or a TV set, to make viewing images easier.
What does a camcorder do?
A camcorder, or digital video camera, records moving pictures and converts them into digital data that can be stored and edited by a computer with special video editing software.
Digital video cameras are used by home users to create their own movies, or by professionals in computer art and video conferencing. They are also used to send live video images via the Internet. Then they are called Web cameras or webcams.
(SR) Supplementary Reading
Do you know…
The VDU (computer monitor or screen) - The VDU (Visual Display Unit) is the computer screen used for outputting information in an understandable format for humans. Remember that at the end of the day the computer works in binary code (a series of on/off impulses). It is hard to realize that the original electronic computers did not have a screen!
Flat screen monitors - Traditional computer monitors are based on the same sort of technology that is used within a television screen.
More recently, flat screen computer monitors have become available. These take up a lot less room on a desk and use less energy than the traditional, more bulky monitors.
Screen size - You should be aware that often if you specify a screen of a certain size, say a 17-inch screen, that this is the size measured diagonally, not horizontally across the screen. If you are upgrading you should also ask for the “visible viewing area” of the screen.
What are VGA Super VGA and XGA? - VGA (Video Graphics Array) was introduced way back in 1987 and was a standard that allows graphics to be displayed on your monitor. It was limited to only 256 colors and an on-screen resolution of 640 x 480 dots (or pixels).
Most people tend to use higher standards such as Super-VGA (which allows you to use more colors and a higher resolution). PCs that are more recent use even higher performance standards allowing a huge range of colors at an even higher resolution.
Another term you may hear is XGA (or XGA compatible). This gives you even higher screen resolution.
Graphics for games - Many games require very advanced graphics cards (boards) to be installed within your computer to make them run. These advanced graphics cards contain their own CPU that is dedicated purely to displaying the graphics on your screen. You should find that a recent PC has this advanced graphics capability built-in where as PCs from only 2-3 years ago may not!
Computer presentation projection devices - These are projection devices that can be attached to your computer and are useful for displaying presentations to a group of people. They are best used in combination with presentation programs, such as Microsoft PowerPoint. They are used within education and are also very popular for sales presentations.
The price of these devices has dropped dramatically recently. When purchasing one of these devices the two things to look out for are the resolution (go for a minimum of XGA) and the brightness of the lamp (the brighter the better). Other factors to be aware of is the quietness (or otherwise of the device) and well as the cost of replacement bulbs!
Different types of printers - There are many different types of printers. In large organizations, laser printers are most commonly used because they can print very fast and give a very high quality output.
In most organizations, the printers are connected to the computers via a network. This means that each person with a computer does not require his or her own printer. Each computer connected to the network can print using a particular shared printer.
Laser printers - Laser printers produce high print quality at high speed. They are called "laser printers" due to the fact that contain a small laser within them. There are a wide range of laser printer manufacturers and one buzzword to be aware of is Postscript, a type of printer that is designed to give very high quality reproduction of pictures.
Color laser printers - Originally, most laser printers would only print in black and white (mono). More recently color laser printers have dropped in price and are entering wide spread use. While many of these produce excellent results, you should be aware of the fact that the "price per page", especially if you are using a lot of color on a page can be very high compared to the cost of printing in black and white.
Inkjet printers - Inkjet printers work by using tiny jets to spray ink onto the paper. Inkjet printers are very quiet in operation and produce print quality comparable to that of laser printers, though laser printers still have the edge in terms of speed.
Inkjet printers are ideal for low volume printing were high quality print is required and speed is not a high priority, e.g. printing letters in a small office or in the home.
Dot Matrix printers - Dot matrix printers work by firing a row of pins through an ink ribbon onto the paper. The more pins the print head has the higher the quality of the print, most modern dot matrix printers have 24 pins.
Unfortunately, dot matrix printers can generate a lot of noise and do not produce a very high quality of print, especially when printing graphics. As a result, the dot matrix printer has now largely been replaced by the inkjet printer. Dot matrix printers are used for high volume / low quality printing, e.g. printing company pay slips.
Printer Memory - It is important to realize that most printers have their own memory chips, in the same way that each computer has its own memory. If you are printing very large graphics (i.e. pictures), and want the best quality output from your printer then you should consider adding more memory to your printer. This must only be done by a qualified person, and has the benefit of really speeding up the rate at which you can print pages in many cases.
Cost of printer peripherals - When you buy a printer, one of the things the salesperson will not necessarily stress is how much it will cost to keep that printer running. Laser printers do not use ink; they use something called toner, which is normally supplied, in a sealed unit called a toner cartridge.
Each toner cartridge will allow you to print a certain amount of pages and when the toner is all used up it needs to be replaced. In some cases the costs of these toner cartridges is very high!
Plotters - A plotter is an output device similar to a printer, but normally allows you to print larger images. There use is common is the design and research sector.
Speakers - Most computers these days are sold with the capability to add a pair of speakers to your system unit. In fact, in some cases, the monitor may have speakers built directly into the unit. This enhances the value of educational and presentation products and can now be considered a standard PC component.
Speech synthesizers - A recent development is the ability not only to display text on a monitor but also to read the text to you. Thus, you could receive a text email from a colleague and the system could read that email to you. This is of enormous benefit to the visually impaired when using a computer. On the flip side, it is now possible to use a microphone to talk to the computer and for the computer to directly convert the spoken word into text that will be displayed within say your word-processor. While these systems are far from foolproof they are getting better as more advanced software is being made available!
Listen to the conversation between Vicky Cameron, an Information Technology (IT) lecturer, and one of her students, and complete these notes:
(S) Speaking (block I):
Read the advertisements above and underline what you think are facts and circle the opinions. Then write them in the table.
dpi = dots per inch
JPEG = a standard format in image compression
Facts are 'real' objective information.
Opinions usually include emotive words, positive/negative phrases and subjective (persuasive) statements.
In small groups, compare your answers and decide: Which text has got more persuasive language? Which text is more factual or objective?
Read and translate the text. Memorize it:
Studying foreign languages
The great German
poet Goethe once said: "He who knows no foreign language does not know
his own one.” Learning foreign languages is especially important nowadays.
Some people learn foreign languages because they need them in their work,
others travel abroad, for the third studying languages is a hobby. Every year
thousands of people from
English is spoken
by more than 350 million people. Geographically, it is the most widespread
language on earth, second after Chinese. It is the official language of the
(G) Grammar (block II):
Comparatives and Superlatives
Apart from catchy slogans and other persuasive techniques, advertisements often use the comparatives and superlatives of adjectives and adverbs.
Read the following examples from advertisements:
(S) Speaking (block II):
What to buy: a PDA or a laptop? Both devices have advantages and disadvantages. Compare PDA and a laptop in terms of: size, portability, weight, price, efficiency/speed, versatility.
Example: PDAs are smaller than laptops.
Laptops are not as easy to carry as PDAs.
a) Read the articles on these websites and check your answers:
b) Would a PDA or a laptop be more suitable for this person:
(G) Grammar (block III):
The class of a word can often be changed by adding a suffix. For example, if -er is added to the verb scan (and the 'n' is doubled) we get the noun scanner.
Common adjectival suffixes are: -ing, -y -able, -ible, -ive, -al, -ed, -ful, -less
Common noun suffixes are: -er, -or, -ion, -tion, -ation, -ment, -ness, -ity, -ant, -logy
Put the words in the box into the correct column below:
Do you know…
· betaware: Software that is given to many users for beta testing before its official release.
· bloatware: Software that uses excessive memory in proportion to the task it performs, perhaps because of having too many unnecessary features.
· firmware: Software stored in ROM or PROM; essential programs that remain even when the system is turned off. Firmware is easier to change than hardware but more permanent than software stored on disk.
· guiltware: Freeware or shareware that has a message attached which attempts to make the user feel guilty until making some kind of payment.
· hookemware: Free software that gives a limited sample of how a program works, intended to hook the user into buying the full version.
· nagware: Shareware that displays a screen when the program is opened or closed that reminds the user to register and pay the fee.
· payware: Software that is sold; commercial software (not freeware or shareware).
· vapourware: Software that is announced long before it is ready for sale, and that sometimes never materializes.
· wetware: Human beings, or the human nervous system, as opposed to computer hardware or software.
Some words have been left out of this persuasive advertisement. Read it and complete it with words from the box:
Advertisement: A digital camera
If you want great pictures from an (1) digital camera, you want the Kodak DC215. Now you can capture life's memories in style with this sleek and (2) digital camera.
The camera's 2X
With one million (1152 x 864) pixels, you'll have enough detail to generate crisp, (4)________ realistic photos up to 5" x 7".
The 1.8" colour LCD lets you preview and review your pictures so you get only the (5) _______ you want, and lets you delete those you don't.
With the included USB COMPACTFLASH Card Reader, you can download pictures up to ten times (6) _____ than with serial connections for faster image sharing.