YEAR OF STUDY I
(G) Grammar: Tense Forms: Active and Passive
Modals and their Equivalents
Questions, Indefinite Pronouns
(L) Listening Interacting with your computer
(S) Speaking: Vinnytsia National Technical University
(G) Grammar (revision):
Tense Forms: Active and Passive
Transform the sentences, containing modal verbs or equivalents into:
· the Past
· the Future
1. Computers can replace people in dull routine work.
2. Computer-controlled robots must increase the productivity of labour.
3. Programmers have to write application programs in a way that computers can understand them.
4. What are you to test next?
5. A program may include data which is to be processed.
Underline the right variant:
1. At the age of 13 Michael Faraday’s schooling (ends/ended/end)
2. The students (work/worked/were working) from 5 to 6 p.m. yesterday.
3. By 2 o’clock the professor (examined/had examined/was examining) all the students of our group.
4. Next time they (have to/had to/will have to) revise all the rules.
5. At this time yesterday he (worked/had worked/was working) at the computing centre.
6. At last she (came/comes/has come).
7. How long (have you known/have you been knowing/know) them?
8. This program (senses/sense/is sensing) all cards.
9. Do you have (some/any/every/no) questions?
10. Usually students (examined/examine/are examined) in this room.
Translate the sentences into Ukrainian:
1. The higher the accuracy of the system, the less errors the system makes.
2. It is natural that we should try to replace the human controller by some forms of automatic controller.
3. There are two kinds of errors which programmers must deal with.
4. He is to write the program immediately.
5. When I came in she was typing this document.
6. This job will have been finished by the end of the next week.
7. They could find him nowhere.
8. Don’t you know that the computer has been rebooted?
9. How long has he been working here?
10. They were allowed to attend the conference last week.
11. What are you going to do with this device?
12. Have you been informed about the meeting?
Rewrite the sentences into Passive:
1. We easily multiply these digits.
2. People use computers everywhere.
3. The students are writing a test now.
4. His computer displays the results of the work.
5. You must do this job at once.
Translate the sentences into English:
1. В нашому університеті є студенти з інших країн.
2. В неї немає комп’ютера, чи не так?
3. Вам не слід розпочинати цю роботу.
4. Хіба Вам не пояснили це правило?
5. Вони знали один одного з дитинства.
6. Яку мову Ви вивчали до того, як вступили до нашого університету?
7. Їм не дозволять протестувати цей прилад.
8. Які операції виконує сучасний комп’ютер?
9. Студенти напишуть програму до червня.
10. Ви коли-небудь чули про цю технологію?
11. Студентам надають гуртожиток.
12. Цей прилад тестували цілий місяць.
13. Всі присутні. Можна розпочинати презентацію.
14. Цю книгу вже забрали. Візьміть ось цю – вона набагато цікавіша.
15. Чим більше я читаю, тим більше дізнаюсь.
16. Ви впевнені, що на Вас чекають?
Rewrite the sentences into Active:
1. English is spoken in many countries.
2. Penicillin was discovered by Fleming.
3. The device is being tested now.
4. The new building has been built.
5. The exams will be passed next month.
Make up questions to the sentences:
1. We are friends.
2. He has just come back from Kyiv.
3. Some days ago we had a scientific conference.
4. They will discuss this problem next time.
5. I am not able to help you with the joystick now – I have to go.
Use the correct verb form:
1. We ________ anything until we hear from you. (not do)
2. What parts _______ a computer ________? (to consist of)
3. We _________ present at the lecture last time because we were away. (to be)
4. He _________ over the phone for 30 minutes. (to talk)
5. How long _____ you _______ this professor? (to know)
6. Symbolic languages ________ symbolic addresses in the operands. (to use)
7. He ______ just _______ his experiment. (to finish)
8. She ________ to see her parents next weekend. (to go)
9. Where are the students? – They ________ labs. (to do)
10.Ann _______ her lecture on history now. (to have)
11.I am going to have a walk. I _______ my entire home tasks already. I ________ them for 3 hours. (to do, to do)
12.He ________ his house by the end of next year. (to build)
13.What _______ you ___________ in the morning? (to do)
14.What _______you ___________ since morning? (to do)
Translate the sentences into Ukrainian, paying attention to modals and their equivalents:
1. The article should be published at once.
2. The lab assistant has to test this device in 2 days.
3. You will have to help him with his calculations.
4. I could ask him some questions about his job.
5. She is to write this program by all means.
6. We won’t be able to make this experiment because of his illness.
7. The students were to start this work three days ago.
8. He had to work hard to master his English.
9. We were to follow this example.
10.I won’t be allowed to finish this work.
11.You ought to remember all these scientists.
12.They were permitted to attend the conference on physics.
Make questions to the following sentences:
1. There is no holiday today.
2. Our University was established many years ago.
3. I will not be able to do it now.
4. He has got a good mark at the exam.
5. They spoke French at school meeting last year.
6. We were good friends.
7. He can deal with computers very well.
8. We are good at reading in English.
9. You must learn this text by heart.
10.I had to prepare for my exams last Thursday.
Input devices are the pieces of hardware which allow us to enter information into the computer. The most common are the keyboard and the mouse. We can also interact with a computer by using one of these: a light pen, a scanner, a trackball, a graphics tablet, a joystick or a voice recognition device.
a) Look at the illustrations and see if you can name them:
b) Listen to these descriptions of three input devices. What are they? Check your answers with a partner.
Look at the picture of a PC-compatible keyboard and identify these groups of keys:
1. Alphanumeric keys: arranged in the same order as a typewriter.
2. Function keys: used by various programs to instruct the PC to perform specific tasks, such as Save, Copy, Cut, Paste, Help, etc.
3. Numeric keypad: set of numeric or editing keys. The Num Lock key is used to switch from numbers to editing functions.
4. Editing keys: cursor and other keys usually used within word processors to page up and down in a long document or to edit text (using Insert or Delete keys).
5. Special keys: used to issue commands or to produce alternative characters in key combinations, for example, the Alt key.
Match these descriptions with the names of keys on the right. Then find them on the keyboard:
1 A long key at the bottom of the keyboard. Each time it is pressed, it produces a blank space. (______________)
2 It moves the cursor to the beginning of a new line. It is also used to confirm commands. (_____)
3 It stops a program without losing the information from the main memory. Sometimes its use depends on the applications. (__________)
4 It works in combination with other keys to produce special characters or specific actions. (____)
5 It removes the character on the left of the cursor or any selected text. (____________)
6 It produces UPPER-CASE characters (or the upper-case character of the key). (_________)
7 It produces upper-case letters, but it does not affect numbers and symbols. (____________)
8 It moves the cursor horizontally to the right for a fixed number of spaces (in tabulations and data fields). (______________)
9 They are used to move the cursor, as an alternative to the mouse. (____________)
Read this passage about a computer mouse. Fill in the gaps with verbs from the list:
A mouse allows you to (1) ________ the cursor and move around the screen very quickly. Making the same movements with the arrow keys on the keyboard would take much longer. As you (2) __________ the mouse on your desk, the pointer on the screen moves in the same direction. The pointer usually looks like an I-bar, an arrow or a pointing hand, depending on what you are doing.
A mouse has one or more buttons to communicate with the computer. For example, if you want to place the insertion point or choose a menu option, you just (3) _________ (press and release) on the mouse button, and the option is chosen.
The mouse is used to (4) ________ text and items on the screen. You can highlight text to be deleted, or you can select an item from a check-box or questionnaire.
The mouse is widely used in graphics and design. When you want to move an image, you position the pointer on the object you want to move, press the mouse button, and (5) _______ the image to a new location on the screen. Similarly, the mouse is used to change the shape of a graphic object. For example, if you want to convert a square into a rectangle, you (6) ________ one corner of the square and stretch it into a rectangle.
The mouse is also used to start a program or open a document: you put the pointer on the file name and (7) __________ on the name - that is, you rapidly press and release the mouse button twice.
Do you know…
The Mouse - The mouse came into common use on a PC with the introduction of the Microsoft Windows operating system. Before this, the operating system (DOS) would normally be controlled via the keyboard. These days it is vital to be a competent mouse user. There are many different types of mice, a commonly used model now has a small wheel on it which when combined with the correct software allows additional functionally and fine control over the use of your applications.
The Keyboard - The keyboard is still the commonest way of entering information into a computer. There are a number of different types, including those specially designed for use with Microsoft Windows.
The quality of the keyboard is often overlooked when buying a PC; it should be robust and easy to use.
Tracker Balls - A tracker ball is an alternative to the traditional mouse and favored by graphic designers. Tracker balls often give much finer control over the movement of the items on the screen. They may take a while to get used to if you are used to the traditional mouse, but offer a lot in terms of added flexibility.
Scanners - A scanner allows you to scan printed material and convert it into a file format that may be used within the PC. You can scan pictures and then manipulate these inside the PC using a graphics application of your choice. In addition, you can scan printed text and convert this not just to a picture of the text but also to actual text that can be manipulated and edited as text within your word-processor. There are a number of specialist programs, generically called OCR (Optical Character Recognition) programs that are specifically designed for converting printed text into editable text within your applications.
Touch Pads - A touch pad is a device that lies on the desktop and responds to pressure. Used in conjunction with a special pen they can be used by graphic artists wishing to create original, digital artwork.
Light Pens - A light pen is used to allow users to point to areas on a screen and is often used to select menu choices.
Joysticks - Many games require a joystick for the proper playing of the game. There are many different types, the more sophisticated respond to movement in 3 axis directions, as well as having a number of configurable buttons. Like most things in life you get what you pay for with joysticks and it is worth investing in a good, strongly constructed model, especially bearing in mind that children will hammer these devices while playing games!
Voice input for PCs - Early voice recognition systems offered very poor results, due to the limitations of the software combined with hardware limitations. It takes an awful lot of CPU processing power to convert the spoken word into text that appears on the screen! Things are changing rapidly however and recent systems allow you to talk to a PC and see text appear on the screen. Most of these systems require an initial training period, where you train the software to respond to your particular voice. While still not perfect this is a key technology of the future!
Web Cams - Ever since it was invented, the Web has become increasingly interactive. A recent development is to use a small digital movie camera (a Web cam) mounted on the PC monitor to allow two-way communication involving not just text communication but sound and video communication as well. While not yet considered a standard piece of PC kit, it is only a matter of time …
Digital Cameras - A digital camera can be used in the same way a traditional camera can, but instead of storing images on rolls of film which require developing, the images are stored digitally in memory housed within the camera. These pictures can easily be transferred to your computer and then manipulated within any graphics programs that you have installed on your computer.
Currently they are limited by the quality of the image recorded and the number of pictures that you may store within the camera.
The following extracts come from sales assistants in computer shops describing the features and functions of various input devices. Complete the sentences by typing in words from the box and then choose which device they’re talking about:
1 This model ______ a backlight, so you can see what you’re typing in the dark. (scanner/keyboard/game controller)
2 We have a Bluetooth version which _______ without wires, but the surface you use it on needs to be dark. (game controller/mouse/microphone)
3 Why don’t you try this? It’s ________ drawing, as if you were using a pen and paper. (graphics tablet/scanner/keyboard)
4 You’ll need one of these – it’s _______ to control your movements while you play. (game controller/graphics tablet/microphone)
5 For more precision, I’d recommend this. It’s like an upside-down mouse, and it works _______ running your hand over the plastic ball here. (game controller/trackball/light pen)
6 This is our most popular model. It _______ you _____ reproduce exact copies of your documents in digital format. (graphics tablet/scanner/microphone)
7 This works just like a mouse, except you ______ write directly onto the screen with it. (scanner/keyboard/light pen)
8 This is a model _________ works particularly well with Skype. (game controller/mouse/microphone)
a) Listen to an interview with Anne, an expert in voice-input technologies.
Tick the features that she mentions:
need a good sound card and a microphone □
take dictation with accuracy □
create and compile a computer program □
surf the Web by speaking □
execute programs and navigate around menus by voice commands □
design graphics □
b) Listen again and fill in the gaps in these sentences. Use the correct modal verb from the list:
1 If you intend to do a lot of dictation, you ______ get a high-quality headset microphone.
2 You __________ dictate text directly onto your word processor or e-mail program.
3 With many voice-recognition programs, the user _______ first train the software to recognize individual pronunciations.
4 Speech-recognition software __________ help children with special educational needs.
5 In a few years' time, a lot of people _________ use their voices to interact with computers.
(S) Speaking (block II):
Read and translate the text and get ready to speak on your University:
General Information about VNTU
Vinnytsia National Technical University is an educational establishment of the fourth level of accreditation well known both in Ukraine and far abroad.
VNTU consists of 7 scientific and educational institutes:
InMBT (Institute of
and seven Integral Institutes, designed for the provision of training process:
The University trains 6000 day-time students, 1500 part-time students, 100 PhD and Doctor degree students, 1000 pre-University students.
The educational and scientific activity is conducted by 47
departments, 26 of which are running branch offices with the enterprises in
Vinnytsia and Vinnytsia region. The departments are run by Doctors of
Sciences, professors (84% of teaching staff in the graduating departments and
72% of University teachers have scientific degrees and titles). 2% of
University teaches have honorary title “Meritorious”. 10% are Academicians
and Correspondent Members of State and Public
VNTU is the unique
Department for Training and Production Integration has its
representatives in all the industrial cities of
VNTU is given the highest IVth level of accreditation and trains students according to the three stage system Bachelor - Engineer – Master, following the curricula, which integrates the peculiarities of national and Canadian system of higher education.
Apart from acquiring the
basic specialty, the students are allowed to get the second specialty by
correspondence. Our University is also unique in
One more peculiarity of students training in VNTU allows the Bachelors with the distinction who have the ability to scientific and educational activity to join Masters training courses after four years of Bachelor's training program.
Students of different specialties learn English for Specific Purposes on the level of technical translation, which allows them to join the overseas representative offices or work abroad.
University campus is located
on the lot of
The first and second year students makes it possible to meet eminent people, authors, musicians, artists, theatre and film actors, politicians and religious figures and other people, who visit the University.
The University has the efficient system for training specialists of higher qualification, which has no analogues. Training of scientific and educational specialists is conducted on the post-graduated courses on 19 specialties and on the Doctoral courses on 4 specialties. There are 5 Specialized Scientific Councils for examination of PhD and Doctoral Thesis on 12 specialties. During the previous 10 years there had been defended 36 Doctoral and 255 PhD theses.
The University issues the social and political periodical “Impulse”, which is in demand in the region. The University scientific journals on technical, economic and pedagogic sciences, approved by the Highest Attestation Board of Ukraine, are: “Visnyk of Vinnytsia Polytechnic Institute”, “Optoelectronic Information”, “Power Technologies”, “Information Technologies and Computer Engineering”. Recently initiated scientific journal is “Modern Technologies, Materials and Constructions in Civil Engineering”. The journal “Sententiae” is specialized in the sphere of philosophical sciences.
VNTU is the only permanent
The University trains
specialists with higher education on the level of Master and Philosophy
Doctor in technical sciences for 69 countries in Africa, Asia, South and