Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3


         Unit 4

Unit 5

Unit 6

Unit 7

Unit 8

Словник комп'ютерних термінів

Граматичні таблиці

Список літератури



Unit 5


(G) Grammar:                                 Perfect Continuous Tenses

Some, any, no, every and their derivatives


That, those, one, ones as substitution words

Word Building (Prefixes)

(R) Reading:                                    The computers people have been dreaming of for a long time

(SR)Supplementary reading:           Units and types of memory

Memory Storage Devices

(L) Listening                                    Buying a computer

(S) Speaking:                                   I’m buying a new computer


(G) Grammar (block I):


Perfect Continuous Tenses

to have + been + Participle I (-ing) } since/ for


have/ has + been + Participle I

He has been learning English for 5 years. (вивчав)

We have been writing this report since morning. (писали)


had + been + Participle I

He was tired, he had been working with computer. (працював до цього)


Exercise 1G.

Translate the following sentences, paying attention to Perfect Continuous Tenses:

1.     You know English quite well. How long have you been learning it?

2.  It has been raining for two hours already.

3.   Have you been working hard today?

4.   They have been testing this device since 2006.

5.   She has been dealing with computer since she was 8.

6.   How long had you been reading at the library when we came?

7.                 He had been learning French before he started to learn English.

8.                 Where had you been working before you entered the University?

9.                 They had been discussing this problem when he came in.

10.            He gave up smoking at last. He had been smoking for 10 years.

11.           He said he had been learning German for 2 years.

12.     She says she has been playing with computer since morning.


Exercise 2G.

Write the verbs in brackets either in the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Continuous:

1. I not (to see) you for a long time. Where you (to be)?

2. How long he (to learn) English?

3. How long you (to know) him?

4. How long she (to be interested) in computers?

5. How long they (to read) this textbook?

6. I not (to do) this task yet.


Exercise 3G.

Are these sentences correct or wrong? Correct the ones, which are wrong:

1.     He has been busy with computer since morning.

2.     How long has he a problem?

3.     How long do you know him?

4.     She has been working as an interpreter for 5 years.

5.     Is it snowing since morning?

6.     I am waiting here for an hour already?

7.     They has been using computers for 20 years.

8.     He have smoked since he was 17.

9.     Tom have been driving for 10 years.

10.           I had never used a laptop.


Exercise 4G.

Use the Present or the Past Perfect Continuous:

1.     He looked tired. He (has been working/had been working) with computers the whole evening.

2.     You are good at computers. How long (have you been using/had been using) them?

3.     I’m sorry. I’m late. How long (have you been waiting/had you been waiting)?

4.     The experiment (will be carried out/will have been carried out) by the end of the next month.

5.     When I looked out of the window, it (has been raining/had been raining).

6.     Your car is equipped with on-board computer. For how long (have you owned/had you owned) it?


Exercise 5G.

Anthony and Beth are discussing a magazine article about new technologies.

a)       Complete their conversation by choosing the correct verb forms.

b)       Decide what type of new technology they are discussing in each part of the conversation (1–4):


Smart homes                  Artificial Intelligence                          RFID Ubiquitous computing              Nanotechnology              

(1) ___________________

Anthony: Have you seen this article in the New Scientist? It’s all about new technologies. It’s fascinating.

Beth: Go on, then. How (are our lives going to change/will our lives be changing)?

Anthony: It’s predicting that pretty soon scientists (are going/will) to be able to make devices like computers and robots using single cells and atoms.

Beth: Wow. To do what?

Anthony: Well, they’re talking about being able to treat diseases at a cellular level by injecting one of these miniature robots, or using the technology to make new, more flexible materials from carbon atoms.

Beth: What (will they think of/will they be thinking of) next?

(2) ___________________

Anthony: Well, it’s funny you should ask. The article goes on to talk about things like robotics and androids.

Beth: Androids?

Anthony: Yeah. It says that by 2050, scientists (will build/will have built) androids that look like humans and have the capacity to interact like humans.

Beth: I don’t think I like that idea. I think it (‘ll be/’ll have been) more trouble than it’s worth. Imagine everything that could go wrong!

(3) ___________________

Anthony: OK, I think you (‘ll like/’ll be liking) this next one more. How about having a computer that controlled all of the appliances and electronic equipment in our house? It would save money because the house would know when you weren’t home, and it’d make sure everything was turned off.

Beth: It (‘ll probably be/’ll probably have been) expensive, though, I imagine.

Anthony: Who knows how much things (will cost/will be costing) in future! Perhaps (we’ll all have lived/we’ll all be living) on the Moon by then!

(4) ___________________

Beth: What does that last bit of the article say? The bit with the photo of that small microchip?

Anthony: Hang on a minute, I (‘m going to/’ll) look. Umm ... it’s talking about a type of technology that uses radio waves and these things called ‘tags’ to identify people.

Beth: People? So they could embed one of these tags in me?

Anthony: Well, in theory, yes. But they’re mainly used on animals – so you can track your pet if they vanish – and on products in shops – so that they can stop people stealing.

Beth: Mmm. It still sounds suspicious to me.

Anthony: Well, it does say here that some organizations are worried about privacy issues.

Beth: I do worry that in the future, governments and big corporations (will be using/will have used) all of these new types of technology to keep us under control.

Anthony: You worry too much. Here, you finish the article. I (‘ll make/’ll be making) us a nice cup of tea.


(G) Grammar (block II):


Indefinite Pronouns some, any, no, every and their Equivalents


Noun, Pronoun,

→ Adverb










something — щось, що-небудь

somebody — хтось

someone — хто-небудь

somewhere — десь, кудись

anything — щось, що-небудь

anybody — хтось

anyone — хто-небудь

anywhere — десь, куди-небудь

nothing — нічого

nobody — ніхто

no one — ніхто

nowhere — ніде, нікуди

everything – все

everybody – кожен, будь-хто

everyone – кожен, будь-хто

everywhere – будь-де


Exercise 6G.

Translate the following sentences paying attention to indefinite pronouns and their derivatives:

1.            I couldn’t understand anything from this text.

2.            Nobody knows French in our group.

3.            Can anybody show me how to deal with this scanner?

4.            Did anyone know the difference between the binary notation and the decimal system?

5.            Everybody can explain what a bit is.

6.            They have made no changes in their program.

7.            Do you need any help?

8.            He’s good at programming. He knows everything about it.

9.            A computer engineer can work everywhere.

10.       I think something is wrong with my printer. It prints nothing.

11.       He could think of nothing but computer games.

12.       Computers are preferred everywhere.


Exercise 7G.

Answer the following questions:

1.            Is there anything interesting in this manual?

2.            Do you know any foreign languages?

3.            Will you go anywhere tomorrow evening?

4.            Could you find any new information in this article?

5.            Are there any viruses in your computer?

6.            Did anybody advise you to enter this University?

7.            Do you have anything to add to your friend’s answer?

8.            Is there anybody sitting behind you?

9.            Do you have any questions to ask me?

10.       Does anyone know Chinese in you group?


Exercise 8G.

Translate the following sentences paying attention to the words in bold type:

1.            Everyone should know that computer languages are based on English.

2.            One of these problems has been solved by a computer.

3.            One should remember all the grammar rules.

4.            His experiment is simpler than that of yours.

5.            Is it clear that these diagrams are like those in figure 5?

6.            By means of a computer one can easily solve any problem.

7.            There is only one solution of this problem.

8.            One day we shall buy another computer, this one is old.


Exercise 9G.

Translate the sentences with the pronoun it:

1.            It all depends on your needs.

2.            Here’s the money to buy a new computer. Take it!

3.            It is important for every young specialist to know at least one foreign language.

4.            This book is very interesting you should read it!

5.            I advise you to buy this modem. Think about it!

6.            I’ll purchase this motherboard. It’s not so expensive.


Exercise 10G.

Translate into English:

1.            Всі знають, що він вміє користуватися комп’ютером з 6 років.

2.            Як довго ти вивчаєш англійську мову?

3.            Ти що-небудь зрозумів?

4.            Лише кілька студентів нашої групи вже користуються портативним комп’ютером.

5.            Комп’ютери використовують в будь-якій установі (офісі).

6.            Це найкращий комп’ютер, я мрію про нього з дитинства.

7.            Ніхто в нашій групі не має такого комп’ютера, тому що він дуже дорогий.

8.            Хтось розуміє різницю між бітом та байтом?

9.            Я вже давно шукаю зручний та легкий портативний комп’ютер.

10.       Ви могли б щось мені порекомендувати?

11.       Ви потребуєте допомоги?

12.       Якщо Вас цікавить хороший принтер – придбайте ось цей.

13.       Назви декілька речей, які можна купити в магазині комп’ютерної техніки.


(R) Reading


The computers people have been dreaming of for a long time

People had been using calculating machines long before the first computers appeared. And for over the last 60 years the scientists and engineers have been improving them.

Now it is impossible to imagine our life without computers. And perhaps there is no person who has never heard of them. Today they are everywhere. Some people still say that they have never used a computer but in fact they have been using them long, only they don’t realize that. It is because they are in so many ordinary things: cars, televisions, CD-players, washing machines, telephones etc.

Nobody can deny it. Any young specialist who wants to get a good job has to deal with computer technique. Modern technology has been bringing in many changes in their design. One can choose any computer configuration he needs. Some prefer laptops because they can take them anywhere, others buy desktops. It depends upon a person’s job. If you don’t know which computer to choose because you are a newbie, you can ask for a piece of advice and any computer-literate person will recommend you the best one that is the closest to your ideal or dream.

Modern computers are extremely powerful, run with operating systems working with optical discs and multimedia applications, can integrate text and pictures with animation and voice applications. They have the best performance and expendability. And the most important thing is that the prices are dropping!

So, if you haven’t bought the computer of your dream yet, go to the shop and look for one!


Exercise 1R.

In the written form give the answers the following questions:

1.     Do you have a computer you have been dreaming of since childhood?

2.     What do modern computer technologies offer?

3.     What kind of computer will you recommend your friend to try?

4.     Are you a newbie or a computer-literate person?

5.     Which one would you like to buy: a laptop or a desktop?

6.     What can a modern computer do?

7.     Describe the configuration of your ideal computer.

8.     What kinds of jobs can you do on a computer?

9.     Does anybody in your group own a modern laptop?

10.         What do you use your computer for?


(SR) Supplementary reading


Exercise 1SR.

With a partner, try to answer these questions:

1         How many digits does a binary system use? What is a 'bit'?

2         What is the difference between binary notation and the decimal system? Give some examples.

3         What is a collection of eight bits called?

4         One kilobyte (1Kb) equals 1,024 bytes.

5.   What does the acronym ASCII' stand for? What is the purpose of this code?


Can you work out the value of these units? (kilo-: one thousand)

1 megabyte =......... bytes/1,024 kilobytes     (mega-: one million)

1 gigabyte =         bytes/1,024 megabytes     (giga-: one thousand million)


Exercise 2SR.

Now read the text to check your answers or to find the correct answer.


Units of memory

Bits - basic units of memory

Information is processed and stored in computers as electrical signals. A computer contains thousands of electronic circuits connected by switches that can only be in one of two possible states: ON (the current is flowing through the wire) or OFF (the current is not flowing through the wire). To represent these two conditions we use binary notation in which 1 means ON and 0 means OFF. This is the only way a computer can 'understand' anything. Everything about computers is based upon this binary process. Each 1 or 0 is called a binary digit or bit.

Bytes and characters

1s and 0s are grouped into eight-digit codes that typically represent characters (letters, numbers and symbols). Eight bits together are called a byte. Thus, each character in a keyboard has its own arrangement of eight bits. For example, 01000001 for the letter A, 01000010 for B and 01000011 for C.

The ASCII code

The majority of computers use a standard system for the binary representation of characters. This is the American Standard Code for Information Interchange, known popularly as ASCII (pronounced “ask-key”). There are 256 different ways of combining 0 and 1 bits in a byte. So they can give us 256 different signals. However, the ASCII code only uses 128 bytes to represent characters. The rest of the bytes are used for other purposes.

The first 32 codes are reserved for characters such as the Return key, Tab, Escape, etc. Each letter of the alphabet, and many symbols (such as punctuation marks), as well as the ten numbers, have ASCII representations. What makes this system powerful is that these codes are standard.

Kilobytes, megabytes and gigabytes

In order to avoid astronomical figures and sums in the calculation of bytes, we use units such as kilobytes, megabytes and gigabytes. One kilobyte is 1,024 bytes (210) and it is represented as KB, or more informally as K. One megabyte is equivalent to 1,024 KB, and one gigabyte is 1,024 MB.

We use these units (KB, MB, GB) to describe the RAM memory, the storage capacity of disks and the size of any application or document.


Exercise 3SR.

Look at the illustrations and the photos below. Then fill in the blanks with the correct unit of memory:


Exercise 4SR.

Do you know…


Types of Memory

What is RAM? - Random Access Memory (RAM) is the main “working” memory used by the computer. When the operating system loads from disk when you first switch on the computer, it is copied into RAM. The original IBM PC could only use up to 640 KB of memory (just over half a megabyte), whereas a modern computer can effectively house as much RAM is you can afford to buy! Commonly modern computers are supplied with over 64 MB of RAM. As a rough rule, a Microsoft Windows based computer will operate faster if you install more RAM.

Data and programs stored in RAM are volatile (i.e. the information is lost when you switch off the computer).

What is ROM? - Read Only Memory (ROM) as the name suggests is a special type of memory chip that holds software that can be read but not written to. A good example is the ROM-BIOS chip, which contains read-only software. Often network cards and video cards also contain ROM chips.

What is the ROM-BIOS? - The “Read Only Memory Basic Input Output System” chip is a chip located on the computer's system (mother) board, which contains software. This software performs a variety of tasks. When you first switch on the computer the ROM-BIOS software performs a self-diagnostic to check that the computer is working OK. This software then loads your operating system from the disk into the RAM.

What is flash BIOS? - Most modern computers are actually supplied with a flash BIOS rather than a ROM-BIOS. This chip contains exactly the same type of in-built software, but has the advantage that the software on the chip can be upgraded. This upgrade is achieved by simply running a small program supplied by the computer manufacturer.

The ROM-BIOS and the Year 2000 bug - Many older computers required the upgrading of the ROM-BIOS chip to fix the so-called “Millennium year 2000 bug”. This was because the older computers held the year information as two digits, so that 99 would be used to represent 1999.

What is Video (graphics) memory? - The picture that you see on your screen is a form of data and this data has to be stored somewhere. The on-screen pictures are held in special memory chips called video memory chips, these chips are usually located on the video card. A modern computer will be supplied with several Megabytes of video memory.


Memory Storage Devices

Internal hard disks

Speed: Very fast! The speed of a hard disk is often quoted as "average access time" speed, measured in milliseconds. The smaller this number is the faster the disk works. There are different types of disk, and commonly used types are known as EIDE and SCSI drives. SCSI is better for large network servers while EIDE drives are often better for desktop computers.

Capacity: Enormous! Often in excess of 10 Gigabytes. A Gigabyte is equivalent to 1024 Megabytes.

Cost: Hard disks costs are falling rapidly and normally represent the cheapest way of storing data.

External hard disks

Speed: Normally slower that internal disks, but more expensive versions offer the same performance as internal hard disks.

Capacity: Same as internal disks.

Cost: More expensive than internal disks.

Zip drives

You can install a Zip drive into your computer and then you can insert Zip disks into that drive. The great thing about these disks is that you can remove one disk and replace it with another, in exactly the same way that you can place different diskettes in your diskette drive. They are great for backing up data and for exchanging data between non-networked computers.

Speed: Slower than normal hard disks but ideal for backups.

Capacity: 100 or 250 Megabytes.

Cost: You have to consider both the cost of the drive, plus the cost of each disk that you wish to use in the drive. Often suppliers will sell the drive plus a pack of 5 disks at a bundled discount price.

Jaz drives

A Jaz drive is similar in concept to a Zip drive. The main difference between them is that a Jaz drive can hold a lot more data. Alas, the disks are not the same as used in a Zip drive and as a result, you cannot use a Zip disk in a Jaz drive or a Jaz disk in a Zip drive.

Speed: Slower than normal hard disks but ideal for backups.

Capacity: Around 2 Gigabytes (2048 Megabytes).

Cost: You have to consider both the cost of the drive, plus the cost of each disk that you wish to use in the drive. Often suppliers will sell the drive plus a pack of 5 disks at a bundled discount price.

Diskettes (floppy disks)

Speed: Very slow!

Capacity: Normally 1.44 Mbytes.

Cost: Very cheap.

CD-ROM Disks

Speed: Much slower than hard disks. The original CD-ROM speciation is now given a value of 1x speed, and later, faster CD-ROMs are quoted as a multiple of this value. Thus, a 50x CD-ROM is 50 times as fast as the original 1x speed CD-ROM specification.

Capacity: Around 650 Mbytes.

Cost: Below £100 each (UK sterling).

DVD Drives

Speed: Much faster than CD-ROM drives but not as fast as hard disks.

Capacity: up to 17 GBytes.

Cost: Slightly higher than CD-ROM drives.

What is the difference between internal and external hard disks?

Internal hard disks are located inside your main computer unit, while external hard disks are joined to the main computer unit via a lead that you plug into the back of your computer unit. Some external hard disks will plug into the serial port (connector) located at the back of your computer. Other external hard disks require the installation of a special card within your computer that allows the connection of the external hard disk to the computer unit.


(L) Listening   icon

Task (Recording 4)

image010Exercise 1L.

а) Name eight different items you can buy in a computer shop.

b) You are going to hear two people making enquiries in a Macintosh computer shop. The shop assistant is telling them about the two models below.

c) Now listen again and fill in the gaps below:



Assistant: Do you need any help?

Paul:         Um yes, we're looking for a personal computer. Have you got any fairly basic ones?

Assistant: Yes, sure. If you'd like to come over here ...

Paul:         What different (1) ........  are there?

Assistant: At the moment we've got these two models: The iMac, which is a desktop computer with a (2)             operating at 1 gigahertz, and the portable iBook, which has a processor (3)                at 700 megahertz.

Sue:           So the iMac is the (4)              one. And which one has the most memory? I mean - which has the most RAM?

Assistant: Well, the iMac has 256 megabytes of (5)                     , which can be (6)          ..........................  up to 1 gigabyte, and the iBook has 128 megabytes which can be expanded up to (7)      . It all depends on your needs. The iMac is suitable for home users and small offices. The iBook is ideal for students and for people who travel.


(G) Grammar (block III):


Word-building (Prefixes)


Exercise 11G.

The table gives some prefixes commonly used in computer science. Knowing the meaning of these prefixes will help you understand new words:







decimal, decimalize, decibel





one thousand (1,000)

(1,024 in binary: 210)

kilocycle, kilogram(me), kilowatt


large; one million

megahertz, megalith, megaton


very large; one thousand million

gigantic, gigabyte, gigahertz



minibus, minimum, minimize


very small

microfilm, microphone, microwave



bidirectional, bidimensional, binary



tripartite, tricycle, trilingual



multi-racial, multi-user, multitasking



monologue, monosyllable, monolingual


Exercise 12G.

Explain these expressions, taking into account the prefixes and root words:

Example:             the binary system

The binary system is a notation which uses two digits, 0 and 1.


1.            a minicomputer

2.            bidimensional chessboard

3.            a microcomputer

4.            a tricycle

5.    the decimal system

5.            a monochrome computer

6.            the hexadecimal system

7.            a CPU with 256 MB of RAM

8.            a multi-user configuration

9.            a document of 3 kilobyte


(S) Speaking


Exercise 1S.

Role play.

Work with a partner. One of you wants to buy a computer, the other is the sales assistant. Ask and answer questions, using the information and instructions below to help you:


Products available

Processor Speed


/Maximum RAM







Explora 700 Net PC

Mips R4700

900 MHz

128 MB expandable to 512

20 GB


3.5" drive

Super VGA





Pentium 4

1.5 GHz

256 MB expandable

to 512

40 GB

3.5" drive



colour LCD



Pentium 4

1.8 GHz

256 MB expandable to 512

70 GB





AMD Athlon

1.6 GHz

512 Mb expandable to 2 GB

80 GB

3.5" drive






Pentium 4

2 GHz

256 MB expandable to 1 GB

60 GB





Shop assistant                                         Customer

Greet the customer and offer help.

Ask to see some computers.

Show the customer some models.

Ask for details: processor, RAM, etc.

Describe the speed in megahertz and the main memory.

Ask about the hard disk.

Give explanations (GB storage capacity, etc.).

Ask about the monitor and other features.

Give the required information.

Ask the price.

Give the price and explain different ways of paying.

                          Decide to buy one/to think about it.

Thank the shop assistant and leave the shop.


Exercise 2S.

Vocabulary tree

Designing vocabulary trees or networks can help you build up your own mental “maps” of vocabulary areas. Look at the list of terms in the box and put each one in an appropriate place on the vocabulary tree below. The first one has been done for you:




expandable memory



hard disk


computer brain



clock speed






floppy disk




Exercise 3S.

Vocabulary quiz.

In groups of three, write answers to these questions. The winners are the group that answers the most questions correctly in four minutes.

1         What are the main parts of the CPU?

2         What is RAM?

3         What memory section is permanent and contains instructions needed by the CPU?

4         What information is lost when the computer is switched off?

5         What is the typical unit used to measure RAM memory and storage memory?

6         What is the meaning of the acronym SIMM?

7         What is a megahertz?

8         What is the ALU? What does it do?

9         What is the abbreviation for “binary digit”?

10    How can we store data and programs permanently?


Exercise 4S.

Make notes about the features of the computer that you would like to have:

CPU: ………       

Speed: ………...........

Minimum/maximum RAM: ………

Optical disk drives: ………..........

Monitor ……….........

Hard disc: ………


Exercise 5S.

Now describe it to your partner.

Useful expressions:

It has got ...

It's very fast. It runs at ...

The standard RAM memory ... and it is expandable.

The hard disk can hold ...

I need a SVGA monitor because ...

As for the Internet …


Exercise 6S.

Nick has gone to his local computer shop to buy a new laptop. Complete his conversation with the sales assistant by typing in words from the box:


running             storage          lighter         feature          any            bigger          for         got          specs          more          cost           cheaper           both


Sales assistant: Hi there. Do you need _____ (1) help or are you just looking?

Nick: Actually, yes, you might be able to help. I’m looking _____ (2) a new laptop. Have you ______ (3) any that are really reliable? I’ve had loads of problems with the one I’ve got at the moment.

Sales assistant: OK. Well, it’ll depend on your budget, but we’ve got two with 20% off at the moment – the Acer Aspire 4920 and the Samsung R60.

Nick: Right. And what’s the difference between these two? Do they have similar _________ (4)?

Sales assistant: Well, the Samsung’s more of an entry-level model. It’s got a Pentium Dual Core processor ________ (5) at 1.4 GHz, which is fast enough for most applications, although you might struggle if you want to play really advanced games on it. The Acer’s processor runs at 2 GHz, which is really fast. The Acer also has twice as much RAM as the Samsung – that’s 2GB as opposed to just 1.

Nick: OK and what’s the _________ (6) capacity of each model?

Sales assistant: OK, that’s 80GB for the Samsung and 250GB for the Acer.

Nick: Mmm. That’s quite a difference, isn’t it? Is there anything else I should know about?

Sales assistant: Well, they ________ (7) come fully wireless and Bluetooth-enabled, and Windows Vista is now standard on all the laptops we sell. They also both __________ (8) DVD writers, so backup onto DVD is quick and easy. The Acer has a slightly _________ (9) screen, and it’s ________ (10), which would make it more practical if you plan to travel with it.

Nick: OK and how much do they ________ (11)?

Sales assistant: Let me just have a look. The Samsung’s quite a bit ________ (12) than the Acer – it’s £439.97 compared to £769.97. But the Acer is much ________ (13) powerful – it’s got twice the RAM and a faster processor.

Nick: Yeah, but I just can’t afford that much. I think I’ll take the Samsung.


Exercise 7S.

Now complete this review of a digital camcorder by typing in the nouns and adjectives from the box:


addition(al)     process(or)     play(er)    optimize(d)     control(ler)     power(ful)


The DF201 benefits from a (1) ______ optical zoom lens and a video image (2) ______ designed for High Definition (HD) recording. Features include a “Quick Start” button and an intuitive menu system, easily navigated using a joystick (3) _________. The camcorder is (4)_________ for high-resolution true widescreen recording and offers (5) _________ features such as a 2.7” LCD and a 0.27” 16:9 colour EVF (Electronic Viewfinder), which allow users to compose and play back video in the same dimensions that it will be displayed on a widescreen TV set. It is then a simple process to finalize the DVD in-camera before playing it back in a compatible home DVD (6) _______.