YEAR OF STUDY I
(G) Grammar: Perfect Tenses Active and Passive
Relative Clauses (which, who, that)
What’s inside a PC system?
(L) Listening Computer system
(S) Speaking: My native town (village).
My ideal computer system.
(G) Grammar (block I):
Perfect Tenses Active and Passive
Translate the sentences, paying attention to the use of tense-forms.
a) Write the following sentences in the Present Perfect Tense, using the proper adverbial modifier of time:
Example: I’m writing a program. (already).
I have already written a program.
1. John spoke to me (just).
2. I was reading the book (already).
3. He is in
4. I lived in Lviv in 1986 (since).
5. Dick is trying to learn English (this year).
6. They are finishing their work (this week).
7. We will go home (just).
8. He didn’t come to his native town last year (since).
9. They were in Odesa (never).
10. I saw this film (already).
b) Revise three forms of the following verbs:
Translate the sentences into Ukrainian:
1. I have attended lectures on programming since October.
2. I attended lectures on programming in October.
3. I have entered the university this year.
4. He entered the university last year.
5. Have you passed your exams?
6. Did you pass your exams last Friday?
7. He has already returned to his native town.
8. He returned to his native village five years ago.
9. Our department was founded in 2001.
10. Our department has just been opened.
11. When was the new equipment installed in the lab?
12. The new equipment had already been installed when our chief came.
Translate the following sentences:
1. All necessary information is being stored in the computer.
2. He has been interested in computer organization since childhood.
3. He has been offered an interesting job at the University.
4. The experiment will have been carried out by the end of the next month.
5. The plan has to be carried out.
6. They have carried out the plan successfully.
7. Your group will have to carry out the experiment.
8. The plan was to be carried out 2 days ago.
Put in the correct verb form: present perfect or past simple:
1. How long ________ (she / study) German?
2. When ________ (he / begin) to study Computer Administration?
3. ________ (you / visit) any museums when you were in
4. Prices ________ (go) up. Things are much more expensive this week.
5. What _________ (happen) to you?
6. Mr. Arnold _________ (win) the Exporter of the Year prize twice.
7. Alfred Hitchcock ________ (make) lots of films in his long career.
8. Mr. Miller ________ (work) in a travel agency for years. Then he gave it up.
9. Melanie lives in
Translate into English. Pay attention to the usage of tenses:
1. Я придбав новий комп’ютер.
2. Що знаходиться всередині комп’ютера?
3. Інформація зараз обробляється.
4. З чого складається комп’ютер?
5. Яка головна функція комп’ютера?
6. Комп’ютер виконує багато операцій над даними.
7. Для чого використовується інтегральна схема?
8. Він купив комп’ютер ще до того, як розпочався навчальний рік.
9. Я прочитаю книгу по організації комп’ютера до кінця тижня.
10. Ми ніколи не працювали з таким комп’ютером.
How computers have advanced
Over the last few years the advances in computer technology have been immense. Computers can do much more today than ever before. And sometimes you don’t know what you really want to have. First of all we have to discuss processors. There are 2 main companies which produce processors today. They are Intel (Pentium Processors) and AMD (Athlon processors). But the difference between is very small. However, in all cases, the more expensive processors, the faster they can run. But it is important to mention than the performance of the processors can be restricted by how much memory it has got. So if you are planning to use the system for games or other graphics intensive application you should keep in mind that it’s RAM that is especially important.
The only thing you have to worry about is the graphic card. You need expensive graphic cards for complex work, but the average users can be satisfied with the card that comes with the processor.
A computer is made up of a number of different electronic circuits, and as we have already mentioned, a computer that once took a whole room has been redesigned with integrated circuits. Because they are tiny, their electronic pathways are very short. Chips made to store huge amounts of information are called memory chips. Another kind of chip, a microprocessor combines memory and control circuits to regulate computing operations. Simply stated a microprocessor is a “computer on a chip.”
What’s a microprocessor? It’s an integrated circuit which has the properties and plays the role of a complete CPU of a computer. The main feature of a microprocessor is that its response and its logic can be altered. So, in other words it can be programmed in different ways rather than react in one pre-programmed way only.
It took some years before the first devices reached the market but in the meantime about a hundred of different microprocessors had become available. As with all microelectronics products, the capabilities of microprocessors have increased rapidly day by day.
Read the text and find English equivalents to the following words and expressions:
Match the synonyms to the following expressions:
(G) Grammar (block II):
Complete the sentences below with suitable relative pronouns. Give alternative options if possible:
1. That's the CPU ………. I’d like to buy.
2. A co-processor is an extra processor chip ………. does calculations at high speed.
3. The microprocessor coordinates the activities ………. take place in the computer system.
4. Last night I met someone ………. works for GM as a computer programmer.
5. A palmtop is a computer ………. is small enough to be held in the palm of one hand.
A megahertz is a unit of frequency ………. is used to measure processor speed.
Complete these definitions from a dictionary by typing in terms from the box. Then choose the correct word to make defining relative clauses:
1. The ________, or CPU, is like a “brain” (which/who/-) performs tasks for your computer.
2. The CPU is built into a single ___________ (that/who/-) executes program instructions and coordinates activities within the system.
3. The __________ is the part of the processor (which/who) is responsible for loading and interpreting the individual instructions that make up a computer program.
4. ___________ is measured in gigahertz; for example, a processor running at 4 GHz would give you all the performance (who/-) you need to run most applications.
__________ are electrical channels (that/-/who) allow devices inside the computer to communicate.
What’s inside a PC system?
The nerve centre of a PC is the central processing unit or CPU. This unit is built into a single microprocessor chip - an integrated circuit (1) which executes program instructions and supervises the computer's overall operation. The unit consists of three main parts:
i the control unit, which examines the instructions in the user's program, interprets each instruction and causes the circuits and the rest of the components -disk drives, monitor, etc. - to be activated to execute the functions specified;
ii the arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which performs mathematical calculations (+, -, etc.) and logical operations (and, or, etc.);
iii the registers, which are high-speed units of memory used to store and control information. One of these registers is the program counter (PC) which keeps track of the next instruction to be performed in the main memory. Another is the instruction register (IR) which holds the instruction (2) that is currently being executed.
One area where microprocessors differ is in the amount of data, the number of bits, (3) they can work with at a time. There are 16, 32 and 64-bit processors. The computer's internal architecture is evolving so quickly that the new 64-bit processors are able to address 4 billion times more information than a 32-bit system.
The programs and data which pass through the central processor must be loaded into the main memory (also called the internal memory) in order to be processed. Thus, when the user runs an application, the microprocessor looks for (4) it on secondary storage devices (disks) and transfers a copy of the application into the RAM area. RAM (random access memory) is temporary, i.e. (5) its information is lost when the computer is turned off. However, the ROM section (read only memory) is permanent and contains instructions needed by the processor.
Most of today's computers have internal expansion slots (6) that allow users to install adapters or expansion boards. Popular adapters include high-resolution graphics boards, memory expansion boards, and internal modems.
The power and performance of a computer is partly determined by the speed of its microprocessor. A clock provides pulses at fixed intervals to measure and synchronize circuits and units. The clock speed is measured in MHz (megahertz) or GHz (gigahertz) and refers to the frequency at which pulses are emitted. For example, a CPU running at 1,600 MHz (1,600 million cycles per second) will enable the computer to handle the most demanding applications.
Read the text above and then sentences 1 to 8. Decide if the sentences are true or false, and correct the false ones to make them true:
1. The CPU directs and coordinates the activities taking place within the computer system.
2. The arithmetic logic unit performs calculations on the data.
3. 32-bit processors can handle more information than 64-bit processors.
4. A chip is an electronic device composed of silicon elements containing a set of integrated circuits.
5. RAM, ROM and secondary storage are the components of the main memory.
6. Information cannot be processed by the microprocessor if it is not loaded into the main memory.
7. “Permanent” storage of information is provided by RAM (random access memory).
8. The speed of the microprocessor is measured in gigahertz or megahertz. One GHz is equivalent to one thousand MHz. One MHz is equivalent to one million cycles per second.
What do the words in bold print refer to:
1. ... which executes program instructions and supervises …
2. ... the instruction that is currently being executed, …
3. ... the amount of data - the number of bits - they can work with at a time, …
4. ... the microprocessor looks for it on ...
5. …. its information is lost when the computer is turned off.
6. ... expansion slots that allow users to install adapters or expansion boards, …
a) Label this diagram with the correct terms.
b) Compare your answers with a partner.
c) Listen recording 3 and check your answers.
Read and translate the text. Get ready to talk about your native city (village).
My native town – Vinnytsia.
Vinnytsia as a small settlement was founded on the picturesque banks
Now Vinnytsia is the centre of one of the 24 regions of
The natural resources are the following: the deposits of granite and lime stone, clay, sand and mineral spring water in several places.
The climate of Vinnytsia region is moderately humid. The mean temperature in summer is +22ºC, in winter –6ºC.
As an administrative centre of
Vinnytsia is the industrial, transport, agricultural, cultural and educational centre of the region.
Nowadays there are private schools as well as state schools, lyceums where all the children can get their general secondary education.
The citizens of Vinnytsia and the guests of our town like to attend the estate museum of famous doctor Pyrohov, the founder of the battle-field surgery, the scientist and pedagogue.
If you are interested in history it would be useful to visit our
Many our guests enjoy visiting the museum of the classic of Ukrainian Literature, Mychailo Kotsybynskiy. The small white house where he lived with his family is in the centre of Vinnytsia. The curator will show you the things belonging to the writer, tell about the family way of life. It was Kotsybynskiy who first thought about the creating of the public library in Vinnytsia. There is a monument to the writer near the house and the street where it stands is named after him.
We call Vinnytsia the cultural centre not only for its historical places, museums and monuments, but also for two theatres and philharmonic society. Our Drama Theatre named after the well-known Ukrainian actor Sadovsky is situated in the centre of Vinnytsia. Theatre-goers can enjoy dramas, comedies, musicals performed by our local actor company.
Welcome to our Vinnytsia!
Answer the following questions:
1. Where were you born?
2. Is it your native town?
3. What school have you finished?
4. Where’s your town (village) situated?
5. Is it far from here?
6. When was your town founded?
7. How old is it?
8. What’s its population?
9. Are there any historical places?
10. Did any famous people visit it?
11. Is there any river? What’s its name?
12. Would you like to come back to your native place?
13. Do you know the history of your native town (village)?
a) Have a look at the photos of Vinnytsia in 1913. Try to recollect the present view of the places presented in the photos below.
b) Make a tour around the city and recollect the photos of old Vinnytsia.
(G) Grammar (block III):
Forms adverbs from the following adjectives using suffix -ly and translate into Ukrainian:
Complete this extract from the interview with Matt Robinson by choosing the correct adjective or adverb:
(SR) Supplementary reading
Do you know…
Main parts of a Personal Computer
The System Unit - The "system unit" is the name given to the main PC box that houses the various elements that go together to make up the PC. For instance within the system unit it is the computer system's motherboard, which contains all the main components, such as the CPU. The system unit also houses items such as the hard disk, the floppy disk and CD-ROM drives etc. System units come in two basic varieties, the tower version, as illustrated, or a desktop version, which is designed to sit on your desk, and you can place your monitor on top of the system unit.
The System (Mother) Board - The system (mother) board in contained within your system unit and all the vital computer systems plug directly into the system board. The CPU is normally housed on your system board along with all the other electronic components. Other items such as the hard disk are attached to the system board, either directly or via cables. These boards are getting smaller and smaller as the components become more integrated. If you open up a system unit these days, mainly it is full of fresh air!
The CPU - The CPU (Central Processing Unit) is normally an Intel Pentium (or equivalent) and it is one of the most important components within your computer. It determines how fast your computer will run and is measured by its MHz speed. Thus, a 600 MHz Pentium is much faster than say a 400 MHz Pentium CPU. It is the CPU that performs all the calculations within the computer.
Memory (RAM) - The RAM (Random Access Memory) within your computer is where the operating system is loaded to when you switch on your computer and also where your applications are copied to when you load an application, such as a word processor or database program. When you create data, (e.g. letters and pictures), these are initially created and held in RAM and then copied to disk when you save the data.
As a rule of thumb, the more RAM you have installed in your computer the better. These days you will commonly find over 64 Mbytes of RAM installed.
ROM-BIOS - The ROM-BIOS (Read Only Memory - Basic Input Output System) chip is a special chip held on your computer's system (mother) board. It contains software that is required to make your computer work with your operating system, for instance it is responsible for copying your operating system into RAM when you switch on your computer.
Universal Serial Bus (USB) - The Universal Serial Bus is a relatively new item within the PC. You will see one or more USB sockets at the back of the system unit, allowing you to plug in devices designed for the USB. These devices include scanners and digital cameras.
The Monitor - The monitor is the TV type screen that you view your programs on. They are supplied in different sizes, common sizes range from 15" to 21" screens. You should be aware that poor quality or badly maintained monitors can harm your eyesight!
The Keyboard - The keyboard allows you to type information into the computer. It has evolved over the years and many people now use a Microsoft style keyboard, which has additional keys designed to make Microsoft Windows easier to use.
The Mouse - When using an operating system, such as Microsoft Windows, you use the mouse to select drop down menus, to point and click on items, to select items and to drag and drop items from one place to another.
CD-ROM - Most computers are now supplied with a CD-ROM (Compact Disc - Read Only Memory) drive. CD-ROM discs look exactly like music CDs but contain computer data instead of music. The advantage of a CD-ROM is that it can hold a vast amount of data (equivalent to the storage capacity of over 450 floppy disks). The other big advantage of CD-ROMs is that they are interchangeable. This means that you can own a range of different CD-ROMs and choose which one to insert into your CD-ROM drive.
DVD Drives - Short for "Digital Versatile Disc”. Similar to CD-ROM drives but allows you to use DVD disks, which contain vastly more information than a traditional CD-ROM disk. These also transfer the data from the disk to the computer far faster, allowing you to watch movies on your computer screen.
A CD-ROM can store 650 MB of data, while a single-layer, single-sided DVD can store 4.7GB of data.
The two-layer DVD standard allows a capacity of 8.5GB, and if double sided ups the storage capacity to 17GB. (or over 25 times the data storage capacity of a CD-ROM!)
Floppy disk - Floppy disks are also known as diskettes. They are very slow compared to hard disks or CD-ROMs, and hold relatively small amounts of data (1.44 Mbytes). Sometimes people will backup (i.e. copy) important data from their hard disk to floppy disks. However, as diskettes are notoriously unreliable this is not the best way of backing up valuable data (but is better than nothing!)
Zip Disc - A Zip disc is like a more recent version of the floppy disk, the main difference being that a single Zip disc can hold up to 250 Mbytes of data. They also offer increased speed compared to the old floppy disk.
Hard (Fixed) Disk - Hard disks are the main, large data storage area within your computer. Hard disks are used to store your operating system, your application programs (i.e. your word processor, games etc) and your data. They are much faster than CD-ROMs and floppy disks and can also hold much more data.
What is a peripheral device? - A peripheral device is any device that you can attach to your computer. Thus, you could attach a scanner or modem to the back of your system unit.
Additional items or cards - Many “extra” components can easily be fitted to your computer, which has the advantage of making the computer “upgradeable” as newer and better hardware comes along.
Sound cards and speakers - Many computers are now supplied with sound cards and speakers that mean that when you run “multi-media” programs, you can listen to sounds that are played back via your computer. If you have a microphone and suitable software, you can also record sounds. You can even purchase special software that will allow you to talk to your computer and get the computer to type the words you have spoken on your screen. In time, this type of software may replace the keyboard.
Modems - A modem is a device that is used to attach your computer to the telephone system. The modem converts data into sound that is sent over the telephone line, the receiving modem turns the sounds back into data. If you wish to connect to the Internet, you will need a modem.
Printers - Most data is printed once you have created it and there are a vast number of different printers available to accomplish this. Most common are ink jet and laser printers both of which can now produce colored output (at a cost!)
Scanners - Scanners allow you to scan printed materials into your computer, which can then be stored within the computer. These pictures can then be altered, resized and printed as required.
Recordable CDs - CD-ROMs are read-only devices, but increasingly people are purchasing a special type of CD drive unit that allows you to record data (and music!) to your own CDs. These devices require that you purchase special CDs that you can write to, called CD-R (Compact Disc – Recordable).
Tape backup - A tape backup unit allows for regular backing up of your data. These tapes can store a vast amount of data at a low cost.
DAT (Digital Audio Tape) devices are commonly used for backups. The DAT tapes that they use can backup enormous amounts of data (i.e. over 4 GBytes per tape). The devices are also fast and reliable.
What are input devices? - Input devices allow you to input information to the computer and include things such as the keyboard and mouse.
What are output devices? - Output devices allow you to output information from the computer and include the printer and the monitor.
What is PCMCIA? - Portables by their very nature are very compact and require smaller than standard parts such as hard disks and CD-ROM drives. Many potables are supplied with special adaptor sockets at the rear that enable what are called PCMCIA compatible hardware to be connected to them.
PCMCIA components tend to be more expensive than standard computer parts that are designed for more bulky desktop computers. More information: http://www.pcmcia.org