YEAR OF STUDY I
(G) Grammar: Continuous Tenses Active and Passive
Adjectives: Degrees of Comparison
Emphatic Construction: It is (was) … Numerals.
(SR)Supplementary reading: From the history of computers
What’s a computer?
Types of computers
Computer speed and capacity issues
(L) Listening Types of computer systems
(G) Grammar (block I):
Continuous Tenses Active and Passive
Translate the sentences, paying attention to the use of tense-forms.
Replace the Indefinite Tenses sentences with the Continuous Tenses ones using the adverbial modifiers of time: now, at 3 o’clock, from … to, when she came where necessary:
1. They built a new hostel some years ago.
2. The students prepare their lessons in the library.
3. We’ll have dinner at our student’s canteen.
4. Tomorrow we’ll have a seminar in mathematics.
5. They bought a new computer 2 weeks ago.
6. We read your text-book.
7. My friend worked in the computing centre.
8. We play football every Sunday.
9. Our teacher asks us many questions at the lesson.
10. I watched a new film on TV last week.
Translate the sentences into Ukrainian:
1. What questions are being discussed now?
2. We are taking our exams next Friday.
3. My friend graduated from the University in 2004.
4. I don’t know what university he is entering.
5. Who is being examined now?
6. Can you tell me who is sitting next to her?
7. Computers are becoming more and more popular.
8. The experiments were being carried out in some laboratories, when the new term started.
9. Our professor was being listened to with great attention the whole lecture.
10. Don’t come at 2 o’clock! I’ll be having my English lesson.
11. I can’t understand what you are talking about.
12. Disc drives are used to handle one or more floppy drives.
Translate the following sentences into English:
1. Наш університет був заснований понад 40 років тому.
2. Інформація зберігається в пам’яті комп’ютера, чи не так?
3. Основна пам'ять зберігає інструкції та дані, які зараз (в даний момент) обробляються комп’ютером.
4. Про що ти думаєш?
5. Я поїду провідати своїх батьків наступної суботи.
6. Коли я зайшов, вона роздруковувала документ.
7. Досліди будуть проводитися завтра чи сьогодні?
8. Мені здається, що мене не слухають.
9. Вони писали програму вчора ввечері.
(G) Grammar (block II):
Open the brackets using the adjectives in the Superlative degree:
1. Our University is (large) than the Medical one.
2. Is English (easy) for you than maths?
3. December, 22 is (short) day of the year.
4. Notebook is (comfortable) than the desk-top computer.
5. My friend is (good) student in the group.
6. Programming is (difficult) for her than physics.
Complete this review of a digital camera by typing in the superlative form of the adjectives in brackets:
Answer the following questions:
1. What university is the oldest in your town?
2. Who’s the youngest in your group?
3. Which of you is good at programming?
4. Is English more difficult than German?
5. What is the easiest subject for you?
6. Who studies better than you?
7. Who lives the farthest from the University?
8. What is the most attractive building in your town?
9. Who studies worse than you?
10. Does your sister get earlier than you?
Order of Adjectives
Characterize these notions, using as many adjectives as you can:
Choose the correct order of words:
1. He’s recently started working for a (brilliant new British/new British brilliant/British brilliant new) design company.
2. I need to replace this (cheap plastic/plastic cheap) laptop – it’s embarrassing when I meet clients.
3. Let me show you this (clever new/new clever) design program I’ve started using.
4. We use the (computer Japanese latest/Japanese latest computer/latest Japanese computer) technology to make sure that our clients get what they need.
5. Why are you still using that (Sony old cheap/cheap old Sony/old Sony cheap) Walkman? You should get an iPod.
Task (Recording 2)
Before listening, answer these questions:
1 Have you got a computer at home, school or work? What kind is it?
2 How often do you use it? What do you use it for?
3 What are the main components and features (the configuration) of your computer system?
Listen to a short lecture given by John Griffiths, an expert on computer systems. As you listen, label the pictures below with the following words:
Listen again and decide whether these sentences are true or false. Correct the false ones:
1. A mainframe computer is less powerful than a PC.
2. A mainframe is used by large organizations that need to process enormous amounts of data
3. The most suitable computers for home use are desktop PCs.
4. A laptop is not portable.
5. Laptops are not as powerful as desktop PCs.
6. Using a stylus, you can write directly onto the screen of a tablet PC.
7. A Personal Digital Assistant is small enough to fit into the palm of your hand.
8. A PDA does not allow you to surf the Web.
(G) Grammar (block III):
Translate the following sentences with the emphatic construction:
was Pascal who invented in
Саме Паскаль винайшов у Франції перший механічний комп’ютер.
It was in
Саме у Франції був винайдений перший механічний комп’ютер.
It was the first mechanical
computer that was invented in
Саме перший механічний комп’ютер був винайдений у Франції Паскалем.
1. It was the invention of the computer that revolutionized the thinking process.
2. It was in 1944 when the first automatic computer appeared and began to operate.
3. It was Norbert Wilner who was considered to be the father of cybernetic.
4. It was Chebyshev who invented the first arithmometer.
5. It was yesterday when we discussed our plan of work.
6. It was Gagarin who started the era of cosmic flights.
7. It is an input unit that accepts information from outside the computer.
8. It is the gravitation that makes the satellites move around the Earth.
Computers are changing the world
Everybody agrees that a computer is really a very specific kind of counting machine. It can do arithmetic calculation much faster than any person alive, and answer any question in a few seconds. It stores the information in its memory until it is needed. Some can do only one job. They are the “big brains” that can solve the most difficult problems of science. And it was a computer that changed the world and thinking process.
Our grandparents used to think of a computer as a large machine that took up the whole room. But today computers are becoming smaller and more popular.
There are several advantages in making computers as small as one can. Sometimes weight is particularly important. But it’s not the only factor. The smaller the computer is, the faster it can work. The signals go to and fro at a very high but almost constant speed. A computer consists of 5 parts.
Some of the first computers cost millions of dollars, but people quickly learned that it was cheaper to let one expensive computer make the necessary calculations than to have a hundred clerks doing the same job. As their popularity grew the number of factories producing them also grew all over the world.
Read the text and choose the proper variant:
1. A computer is a kind of (a counting machine, a typewriter, a table game).
2. Computer could be used to (play games, solve different problems, save money).
3. There are (very many, few, five) most important parts of a computer.
4. The smaller the computer is, the (slower, better, faster) it can work.
5. Computers are becoming (cheaper, larger, more popular).
Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the conjunctions of comparison: as … as (як, так і/ як), not so … as (не так, як), the … the (чим …, тим …), than … (ніж), much more important (набагато важливіше):
1. This computer is not so expensive as that one.
2. Today’s computers are much cheaper than 10 years ago.
3. She doesn’t work at her English as she did last year.
4. Chemistry is not so interesting for me as mathematics.
5. The more we study, the more we know.
6. The less we know the less we forget.
7. This problem is much more important to him.
8. English is the most popular language in the world.
9. The more expensive processors the faster they can run.
10. English is easier than Russian.
11. Computers do the calculations much faster than people.
12. Do it as quickly as possible.
(SR) Supplementary reading (block I)
In pairs, label the elements of this computer system. Then read the text and check your answers.
What is a computer?
Computers are electronic machines which can accept data in a certain form process the data and give the results of the processing in a specified format as information.
Three basic steps are involved in the process. First, data is fed into the computer's memory. Then, when the program is run, the computer performs a set of instructions and processes the data. Finally, we can see the results (the output) on the screen or in printed form (see the diagram below).
Information in the form of data and programs is known as software, and the electronic and mechanical parts that make up a computer system are called hardware. A standard computer system consists of three main sections: the central processing unit (CPU), the main memory and the peripherals.
Perhaps the most influential component is the central processing unit. Its function is to execute program instructions and coordinate the activities of all the other units. In a way, it is the 'brain' of the computer. The main memory holds the instructions and data which are currently being processed by the CPU. The peripherals are the physical units attached to the computer. They include storage devices and input/output devices.
Storage devices (floppy, hard or optical disks) provide a permanent storage of both data and programs. Disk drives are used to handle one or more floppy disks. Input devices enable data to go into the computer's memory. The most common input devices are the mouse and the keyboard. Output devices enable us to extract the finished product from the system. For example, the computer shows the output on the monitor or prints the results onto paper by means of a printer.
On the rear panel of the computer there are several ports into which we can plug a wide range of peripherals - modems, fax machines, optical drives and scanners.
These are the main physical units of a computer system, generally known as the configuration.
Read the text and study the diagram above.
Use the information in the text and the diagram to help you match the terms in the box with the appropriate explanation or definition below:
1. The brain of the computer.
2. Physical parts that make up a computer system.
3. Programs which can be used on a particular computer system.
4. The information which is presented to the computer.
5. Results produced by a computer.
6. Hardware equipment attached to the CPU.
7. Visual display unit.
8. Small device used to store information. Same as 'diskette'.
9. Any socket or channel in a computer system into which an input/output device may be connected.
Do you know…
Types of computers
What is a mainframe computer? - Mainframe computers are the big, powerful, expensive computers used in the background by most large organizations. The power of the mainframe can be distributed among many people accessing the mainframe either via a PC or a so-called “dumb terminal”. Companies such as large insurance companies would use the mainframe to keep track of their policyholders and send out renewal notices.
What is a mini-computer? - Like mainframes, these are very powerful and also very expensive. In many ways, the old differences between a mainframe and a minicomputer have blurred and in many cases, the two words are almost interchangeable. In former days, the mainframes were the biggest computers that organizations would use, while mini-computers were used by mid-sized companies.
What is a super-computer? - A super computer, as the name implies is an incredibly powerful beast with a phenomenal capacity for processing data. They are used extensively by the military. In civilian use, they tend to be used for research and also in areas such as weather forecasting where a tremendous amount of data has to be processed rapidly and used to make predictions. More information: http://www.cray.com/
What is the difference between a PC and a Mac? - IBM invented the PC (Personal Computer) way back in 1981. All PCs released since then are in many ways compatible with the original design, though many extensions to the original design have been made. The term PC compatible relates to PCs manufactured by companies other than IBM that are compatible with the traditional PC specification.
In the early days, most PCs ran an operating system called DOS (Disk Operating System). These days most PCs will be running a version of Microsoft Windows (Windows 95, Windows 98, NT or Windows 2000).
The Apple Mac is a computer, but NOT a PC. It uses a different operating system, and requires special versions of application programs (such as word-processors or spreadsheets). Even the hardware add-ons have to be customized to some extent to be able to be connected to a Mac. In the early days the thing that really distinguished the Mac over the PC was the GUI (Graphical User Interface), or in plain English the way you could use the mouse to drive the computer. In the early days of the PC, you really had to be a bit of an expert to use and maintain your PC!
Recently the differences between the PC and the Mac have blurred, with even Microsoft buying a stake in Apple. More information: http://www.apple.com
What is a networked computer? - A network allows you to connect two or more computers together. This allows data stored on one PC to be retrieved by other PCs connected to the network. It also allows the sharing of resources. Thus instead of each PC requiring its own printer to be directly connected to it, you can have a single printer shared amongst many, networked PCs. In the early days, to network PCs together was a complicated task, only to be attempted by qualified professionals. These days most people with a good working knowledge of Microsoft Windows can install and configure a Windows based network. However to get the best out of your network, in terms of performance and security, still requires a qualified, experienced technician.
What are laptop & palmtops computers? - Laptop computers as the name implies are small, portable computers that can run on batteries as well as mains power. They use special screens, rather than the traditional bulky VDUs (Visual Display Units), which allows for longer battery life as well as portability. A newer term, “Notebooks”, simply indicates a VERY small laptop. These are especially popular with salespersons on the move or people giving presentations. While they tend to still be more expensive than an equivalent Desktop computer, they can now match the power of a Desktop computer. Palmtops are even smaller computers!
CPU types Modern PCs use some sort of Pentium (or equivalent) Central Processing Unit (CPU). There is a number of different Pentium CPUs on the market and to get information of the latest types read the computer press or visit the Intel Web site. Your computer may have a 586 rather than an Intel Pentium in it. This simply means that the CPU is not made by Intel, but by some other manufacturer, such as Cyrix or AMD. The Pentium name is copyrighted by Intel and only Intel CPUs can be called Pentium CPUs.
Clock speed The computer clock speed governs how fast the CPU will run. The higher the clock speed the faster the computer will work for you. The clock speed is given in megahertz (MHz). The originally IBM PC ran at 4.77 MHz whereas modern PCs will often run at over 600 MHz which gives you an idea of how far things have progressed since the introduction of the original PC. The higher the MHz speed the faster the computer.
RAM If you are using a Windows based system, then you will often see great improvements to your computer’s performance by adding more RAM (Random Access Memory).
Hard disk speed and storage Hard disks are also measured by their speed, defined by the disk access time, which is measured in milliseconds. The smaller this access time the faster the hard disk will store or retrieve data. The data storage capacity of hard disks continues to increase as new products are released. The disk storage capacity is measured in Gigabytes (GBytes). 1 GByte is equivalent to 1024 Mbytes.
Complete this customer review from a website by typing in the words from the box:
(G) Grammar (block IV):
Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to numerals:
1. Our University was founded in 1967.
2. It became independent in 1974.
3. Our department numbers 300 people.
4. We celebrated the University day on the 6th of October.
5. ⅓ of student’s staff does not pay for studying.
6. There are 4 or 3 students in each hostel room.
7. We are
8. Each institute has 2 departments with the dean at the head.
9. The lessons finish at 2 p.m.
10. Our University library contains thousands of books on different specialties.
11. The student’s staff is about 6.000 persons.
12. We are first-year students.
13. My friend will graduate from our University in 2009.
14. They entered our Computing department in 2000.
15. I live about
(SR) Supplementary reading (block II)
From the history of computers
Thousands years ago, humans needed to count. Families had to know how many animals, how much food and how much land they owned. This information was important when people wanted to buy and sell things and also when people died or got married. There were many different ways to count and write down the numbers.
Around 1900 to 500 B.C. the Babylonians invented a new way to count which used place values and between 1000 and 500 B.C. they invented abacus. It used small stones which they put in lines. Each line of stones showed a different place value. To do calculations they were moving stones from one line to another. Although an abacus could be very fast it wasn’t really a machine because it didn’t do calculations automatically.
In the 17th century, people began to build calculating machines. In 1640, the French mathematician Blasé Pascal made an Arithmetic Machine. During the next 10 years, Pascal made 50 more machines.
In the 1670s, a German called Leibnitz continued Pascal’s work and made a better machine. It was his machine that could do more difficult calculations than Pascal’s Arithmetic Machine.
In the 19th century, machines changed the world. People could travel more easily and communicate more quickly. The Industrial age was being started.
The second half of the twentieth century saw the start of the Computer age. At first, computers were very difficult to use, and only a few people could understand them. But soon computers began to appear in offices, then at homes. When the first computers were built in the 1940s and 1950s, they were enormous. In fact, they were as big as a room. In fact they weighed less then 1, 5 tones.
Today’s computers are being preferred in every office, school, and university. They are in so many ordinary things: cars, CD-players, washing-machines, TV-sets etc. Modern young people can’t imagine their life without computers.
Read and translate the following text and ask all types of questions.
Read text and write out the antonyms to the following words:
Write tag questions to the following sentences:
1. At first computers were very large, чи не так?
2. Pascal invented the first computer in 1640, чи не так?
3. Computers will be really small, чи не так?
4. The experiments were being carried out the whole week, чи не так?
5. He is as smart as his brother, чи не так?
6. She can read English books in the original, чи не так?
7. Our University numbers about 6.000 students, чи не так?
8. You can keep it as long s you need it, чи не так?
9. They will be able to get a grant, чи не так?
10. Computers are becoming very popular, чи не так?