Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3


         Unit 4

Unit 5

Unit 6

Unit 7

Unit 8

Словник комп'ютерних термінів

Граматичні таблиці

Список літератури



Unit 2


(G) Grammar:                                 Passive Voice

Modal Verbs and their Equivalents

Word Building (nouns)

(R) Reading:                                    The digital age

(SR)Supplementary reading:           Computers in the home

(L) Listening                                    Computer usage

(S) Speaking:                                   Applications of computers


(G) Grammar (block I):

Passive Voice


be + Participle II (to be used)


A computer is used (застосовується) = they use a computer

Computers are used (застосовуються) = they use computers


A computer was used (застосовувався) = they used a computer

Computers were used (застосовувалися) = they used computers


A computer will be used (застосовуватиметься) = they will use a computer

Computers will be used (застосовуватимуться) = they will use computers


Exercise 1G.

Translate the following sentences:

1)    Our University was founded in 1967.

2)    An interesting problem was discussed at the lecture.

3)    All the calculations will be done by a computer.

4)    English is spoken all over the world.

5)    This University is well known in Ukraine.


Exercise 2G.

Transform the sentences into Passive:

1.     People use computers in a great variety of fields.

2.     Computers perform different operations.

3.     Students use computers to access the Internet.

4.     Workstations in the race buses provide the timing system to TV stations.

5.     Scientists invented computers last century.

6.     Managers will use computers for administrative purposes.

7.     This professor teaches two foreign languages.

8.     The teacher asked the students many questions.

9.     Airplane pilots use computers to help them control the plane.

10.  We shall meet the delegation of foreign scientists next week.


Exercise 3G.

Transform the sentences from Passive into Active:

1.     Usually students are examined in this room.

2.     Students are taught different subjects.

3.     He will be given a good job.

4.     This hostel was built last year.

5.     These problems were discussed at the seminar 2 days ago.


Exercise 4G.

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.


Example:   Houses (design) …………. with the help of computers.

Houses are designed with the help of computers.

1.       Various terminals (connect) …………. to this workstation.

2.       Microcomputers (know) …………. as “PCs”.

3.       Magazines (typeset) …………. by computers.

4.       When a particular program is run, the data (process) …………. by the computer very rapidly.

5.       The Web (use) …………. to search for information and buy products online.

6.       The drug-detecting test in the Tour de France (support) …………. by computers.

7.       All the activities of the computer system (coordinate) …………. by the central processing unit.

8.  ..In some modern systems information (hold) …………. in optical disks.


(L) Listening


Task (Recording 1) icon

Exercise 1L.

a)       Listen to these people talking about how they use computers and write each speaker’s job into the table:


electrical engineer           secretary               librarian              composer




What they use computers for














b)    Now listen again and say what each speaker uses their computer for.


(R) Reading


The digital age

We are now living in what some people call the digital age, meaning that computers have become an essential part of our lives. Young people who have grown up with PCs and mobile phones are often called the digital generation. Computers help students to perform (1) mathematical operations and improve their maths skills. They are used to access the Internet, to do basic research and to communicate with other students around the world.

Teachers use projectors and interactive whiteboards to give presentations and teach sciences, history or language courses. PCs are also used for administrative purposes - schools use word processors (2) to write letters, and databases to keep records of students and teachers. A school website allows teachers to publish exercises for students to complete online (3).

Students can also enrol for courses via the website and parents can download (4) official reports.

Mobiles let you make voice calls, send texts, email people and download logos, ringtones or games. With a built-in (5) camera you can send pictures and make video calls in face-to-face mode. New smartphones combine a telephone with web access, video, a games console, an MP3 player, a personal digital (6) assistant (PDA) and a GPS navigation system, all in one.

In banks, computers store (7) information about the money held by each customer and enable staff to access large databases and to carry out financial (8) transactions at high speed. They also control the cashpoints, or ATMs (automatic teller machines), which dispense money to customers by the use of a PIN-protected card. People use a Chip and PIN card to pay for goods and services. Instead of using a signature to verify payments, customers are asked to enter a four-digit personal identification number (PIN), the same number used at cashpoints; this system makes transactions more secure. With online banking, clients can easily pay bills and transfer money from the comfort of their homes.

Airline pilots use computers to help them control the plane. For example, monitors (9) display data (10) about fuel consumption and weather conditions. In airport control towers, computers are used to manage radar systems and regulate air traffic. On the ground, airlines are connected to travel agencies by computer. Travel agents use computers to find out about the availability of flights, prices, times, stopovers and many other details.


Exercise 1R.

Find the words (1 -10) in the text above. Can you guess the meaning from context? Are they nouns, verbs, adjectives or adverbs? Write n, v, adj or adv next to each word.


1     Perform                                                         6  digital

2     word processor                                             7  store

3     online                                                            8  financial

4     download                                                      9  monitor

5      built-in                                                        10  data


Exercise 2R.

Match the words in the previous exercise (1 -10) with the correct meanings (a-j):


a.  keep, save                                               f. screen

b.  collection of facts or figures                    g. program used for text manipulation

c.   execute, do                                             h. integrated

d.  describes information that is recorded       i. copy files from a server to your PC or mobile

 or broadcast using computers                    j. connected to the Internet

e.   monetary


(S) Speaking


Exercise 1S.

Look at the text again and discuss these questions:


1.       How are/were computers used in your school?

2.       What other areas of study would benefit from the introduction of computers?


Exercise 2S.

Use collocations in the box to complete these sentences:


access the Internet, perform operations, do research, make calls, send texts, display data, write letters, store information, complete exercises, carry out transactions


1.  Thanks to Wi-Fi, it's now easy to ______ from cafes, hotels, parks and many other public places.

2.  Online banking lets you ______ between your accounts easily and securely.

3.  Skype is a technology that enables users to ______ over the Internet for free.

4.  In many universities, students are encouraged to ______ using PowerPoint in order to make their talks more visually attractive.

5.  The Web has revolutionized the way people ______ - with sites such as Google and Wikipedia, you can find the information you need in seconds.

6.  Cookies allow a website to ______ on a user's machine and later retrieve it; when you visit the website again, it remembers your preferences.

7.  With the latest mobile phones, you can ______ with multimedia attachments - pictures, audio, even video.


Exercise 3S.

Choose words from the box to fill in the text:


store, process, enter, hard drive, data, save, program, graphics, input, keyboard, memory, CD-ROM, floppy disk


A computer can _______ and ________ information. This information is called ________ and can be words, numbers or ___________. To process data, the computer uses a ____________, which is a set of instructions stored on the computer’s _____________.

To ______ data, you can _______ it using the ________. If you want to store this data, you ________ it in the computer’s ________ or onto a _________. Large amounts of information, such as books, can be stored on a _______.


(G) Grammar (block II):









Have to

Be to

Ought to




- could/might/may

Kate is not in the room, she may/might be in the laboratory. – Каті немає в кімнаті, але вона може бути в лабораторії.

- can

The temperature can reach 35 degrees in summer. - Літом температура може сягнути 35 градусів.

- can/could

When I was a child I could play basketball very good. - Коли я був дитиною, я міг добре грати в баскетбол.

- shall

Shall I open the window? – Мені відкрити вікно?

- should

Look on the shelf the keys should be there. - Подивись на полиці – ключі повинні бути там.

I think you shouldn’t sit in front of the monitor for so long. - Я думаю, тобі не слід так багато часу проводити перед монітором.

- can + verbs of perception

I could hear the music coming out of the neighboring window. - Я чув музику, що лунала з сусіднього вікна.

- can/could

Can I come it? - Можна ввійти?

Could you help me? – Чи не могли б ви мені допомогти?

- may/might

May I take your newspaper? – Можна мені взяти вашу газету?

- must

You must come at work on time. - Ви повинні приходити на роботу вчасно.

- mustn’t

You mustn’t be here! Go away! - Вам не можна тут бути! Йдіть!

- have to

My computer is broken and now I have to work with yours. – Мій компютер зламався і тепер я змушений працювати на твоєму.

- don’t have to

I have installed this program already, you don’t have to do it, thanks. - Я вже встановив цю програму, тобі не потрібно цього робити, дякую.

- ought to

You ought to help him. - Ти повинен допомогти йому.

- be to

She is to be here soon, we decided to meet at 8 p.m. - Вона повинна незабаром прийти, ми домовились о 8 вечора.


Exercise 5G.

Write the sentences in the Past and Future Indefinite:


Example A:                   You must attend lectures.

     You had to attend lectures.

                                      You will have to attend lectures.

1.     Students must take examinations every session.

2.     You must know what a computer is.

3.     Everybody must cross the street on green light.

4.     We must be present there by all means.

5.     He must read the text again.


Example B:                   He can read well.

     He could read well.

                                      He will be able to read well.

1.       He can get second higher education.

2.       I can deal with computer.

3.       She can help you in your studies.

4.       They can’t translate this text.

5.       We can meet you at the bus station.


Example C:                   She may come in.

     She might (was allowed, was permitted to) come in.

                                      She will be allowed (permitted) to come in.

1.       You may go home after classes.

2.       They may continue the experiments.

3.       You may not take this book from my library.

4.       The students may attend this conference.

5.       He may use a dictionary at the test.


Modal Verbs and their Equivalents

Physical ability (фізична можливість, вміння)

Can – could – to be able to

Permission (дозвіл)

May – might – to be allowed (permitted) to

Obligation (повинність)

Must – to have to – to be to

Should – ought to – to be obliged to

Modals + be + Participle II

Computer (s) can/ must/ should/ could/ may/might ... be used by every student.


Exercise 6G.

Read and translate the sentences and make up special questions:

1.            Computers are used everywhere now.

2.            The department of physics was opened 3 years ago.

3.            He was asked many questions about his new job.

4.            The experiments will be completed soon.

5.            He was listened to with great attention.

6.            The students were explained how to use this rule.

7.            All the activities of the computer system are coordinated by the CPU.

8.            Your article may be published at our University’s newspaper.

9.            Information can be stored in computer’s memory.

10.       New hostels will be built next two years.


Exercise 7G.

Find the sentences in which verbs to be and to have are translated as “повинен”:

1.                 Computer has five main units.

2.                The main task of this article was to show the results of our experiments.

3.                The lecture was to begin at 10 p.m.

4.                The participants of this conference are to arrive tomorrow morning.

5.                Our lab assistant has to test this device at once.

6.                He has done this work.

7.                What am I to do?

8.                Do you have any questions?

9.                I will have to do this work.

10.           He has no computer at home.


Exercise 8G.

Translate the sentences into English:

1.            Вам слід знати, як працює комп’ютер.

2.            Освічена людина має знати хоча б одну іноземну мову.

3.            Чи можу я відвідати комп’ютерний центр сьогодні?

4.            Що ще можуть робити комп’ютери?

5.            Йому доведеться взяти словник, щоб перекласти текст.

6.            Він ще не вміє писати програми, чи не так?

7.            Студентам не дозволяється палити в приміщенні.

8.            Хіба Ви не зможете зробити це за допомогою комп’ютера?

9.            Ви повинні були зачекати на нього.

10.           Студентам не дозволили користуватися цим приладом, тому що його потрібно було відремонтувати.


(SR) Supplementary reading


Exercise 1SR.

Write a report on your computer application (in the form of a text).


Useful constructions:

Computers are used to ...; a PC can also be used for...; Computers can help ... make ... control... store ... keep ... provide ... manage ... give ... perform ... measure ... test... provide access to ...


Exercise 2SR.

Read through the text and find the answers to these questions:

1.           What are “computer graphics”?

2.           What do the acronyms “CAD”, “CAE” and “CAM” stand for?

3.           What are the benefits of using computer graphics in the car industry?

4.           What are the benefits of using graphics in business?

5.           What is “computer animation”?


Computer graphics

Computer graphics are pictures and drawings produced by computer. A graphics program interprets the input provided by the user and transforms it into images that can be displayed on the screen, printed on paper or transferred to microfilm. In the process the computer uses hundreds of mathematical formulas to convert the data into precise shapes and colours. Graphics can be developed for a variety of uses including presentations, desktop publishing, illustrations, architectural designs and detailed engineering drawings.

Mechanical engineers use sophisticated programs for applications in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing. Let us take, for example, the car industry. CAD software is used to develop, model and test car designs before the actual parts are made. This can save a lot of time and money.

Computers are also used to present data in a more understandable form: electrical engineers use computer graphics to design circuits and people in business can present information visually to clients in graphs and diagrams. These are much more effective ways of communicating than lists of figures or long explanations.

Today, three-dimensional graphics, along with colour and animation, are essential for such applications as fine art, graphic design, Web-page design, computer-aided engineering and academic research. Computer animation is the process of creating objects and pictures which move across the screen; it is used by scientists and engineers to analyze problems. With the appropriate software they can study the structure of objects and how it is affected by particular changes.

Basically, computer graphics help users to understand complex information quickly by presenting it in a clear visual form.


Exercise 3SR.

Graphics programs have several options that work in conjunction with the tools menu to enable the user to manipulate and change pictures.

Look at the facilities on the left and match them with the definitions on the right:



1) Patterns menu

2) Scaling

3) Rotating

4) Inverting

5) Zoom

6) Slanting

7) Black-and-white dithering

a)        Turning an image round.

b)        A tool which lets you scale the 'view' of a picture and edit a small portion of it as if you were working under a magnifying glass. It is very useful for doing detailed work as you can edit the picture one dot at a time.

c)         Making the object larger or smaller in any of the horizontal, vertical or depth directions.

d)        A shading technique where two different colours are placed next to each other; the human eye blends the colours to form a third one. It is also used to show shading in black and white.

e)         A palette from which you choose a design to fill in shapes.

f)          Reversing the colour of the dots in the selected part of a picture, so that white dots become black and black dots become white.

g)        Inclining an object to an oblique position.


(G) Grammar (block III):


Word-building (nouns)

Exercise 9G.

Form the nouns from the corresponding adjectives using the suffixes: - (i)ty, -ness:


available                                           possible                                     difficult

dark                                                 real                                            weak


Exercise 10G.

Write the verbs from the corresponding nouns:


consumption            organizer              computer            instruction          entertainment

introduction              participation         information         programmer       calculator


Exercise 11G.

Form the nouns using the following suffixes: -ment, -er/-or, -tion, -ssion, -ness, -ance/-ence from the verbs:


to compute

to operate

to inform

to teach

to perform

to generate

to measure

to determine

to manage

to relax

to apply

to produce

to process

to exist

to execute


Exercise 12G.

Look at these extracts from various websites. Are the words in bold verbs, nouns, adjectives or adverbs?


1.       Click here to begin your download.

2.      Download the MP3 file now!

3.      Buy now by visiting our store.

4.       We will not store your details for more than 14 days.

5.      Click here for an online discount.

6. Buy online by clicking here.