YEAR OF STUDY II
(G) Grammar: Revision: Modals
Modals + Perfectives
(SR) Supplementary reading: Copyright
(L) Listening Web designing
(S) Speaking: Famous people of GB
(G) Grammar (block I):
Modals (Variants of translation)
Translate the following sentences with the modals “can” and “could”:
1. Can I help you?
2. He can’t have done this translation.
3. They can’t be reading this book in the original!
5. Can I have lost my money?
6. Don’t you think he could create this website?
7. I wonder if you could tell me about this poet.
8. Can you be his friend? I can’t believe it!
9. She can’t have been studying at this University for 3 years
10. Sorry, I couldn’t but leave!
Translate into English using “can” or “could”:
1. Читаючи сонети Шекспіра, не можна не захоплюватися талантом автора!
2. Чи можу я скористатися Вашим мобільним телефоном?
3. Не може бути, що я забув Ваше ім’я!
4. Він може дуже добре креслити.
5. Чи не могли б Ви мені допомогти?
6. Я не міг не скористатися факсом!
7. Невже Ви не читали книг цього письменника?
8. Невже я припустився такої помилки?
9. Не може бути, щоб я припустився такої помилки!
10. Ви вмієте користуватися сканером?
Translate the following sentences with modals “must” and “should”:
1. You shouldn’t have bought this monitor now – the prices are falling rapidly.
2. He must be creating a new document.
3. You mustn’t cross the street in this place!
4. A young specialist should know at least one foreign language.
5. You should update your site as soon as possible.
6. You must have been told about this conference.
7. We should decide whether to delete this information or not.
8. You mustn’t open e-mail attachments in the letters from strangers.
9. Should I say something more?
10. Must I upgrade now?
Translate the sentences into English using “must” or “should”:
1. Вам не слід обговорювати це питання сьогодні.
2. Напевне, ви помилилися, вам варто перевірити цю інформацію ще раз.
3. Він не повинен спізнюватися на роботу.
4. Нам не слід було публікувати цей сайт.
5. Їм слід подумати чи варто використовувати ці файли.
6. Чи повинен я зробити це негайно?
7. Йому не слід турбуватися про цю статтю.
8. Напевне, я забув Вашу адресу.
9. Кожен інженер повинен знати англійську мову.
10. Напевне, він перезавантажував комп’ютер.
11. Ви повинні робити резервне копіювання так часто, наскільки це можливо.
12. Вам слід було зберігати пароль в надійному місці.
Translate the following sentences paying attention to the modal verb “may”:
1. He might have used this device.
2. He may not notice this mistake.
3. May I use your phone?
4. You might have forgotten it in the lab.
5. You may be watching a football match on TV.
You may go to
7. It may not snow too much.
8. They may be waiting for him now.
9. Do you think he might have made such a mistake?
10. There might not be a meeting, because our chief is on a business trip.
Translate the sentences into English using “may” or “might”:
1. Можливо, Ви зачекаєте ще 1 хвилину?
2. Можливо, ціни знизяться наступного місяця.
3. Чи можу я скористатися Вашим комп’ютером?
4. Ви легко можете створити такий документ самостійно.
5. Можливо, Ви знищили цей файл.
6. Мабуть, завтра дощу не буде.
7. Мабуть, ви загубили Ваші ключі від сейфу.
8. Можливо, він поновив свій веб-сайт.
9. Можливо, Ви помиляєтеся. Перевірте цей архів ще раз.
10. Можливо, він любить говорити про політику.
Complete the sentences using can, could, may, might, should, can't, must.
1. All HTML documents _____ start with <HTML> and end with </HTML>.
2. If I knew the Java language, I _____ include some attractive banners on my web page.
3. With a web page editor you _____ create a web document easily.
That woman speaks with a
5. She _____ be a top model. I know some of her friends.
6. He _____ be a good web page designer because he doesn't know the HTML language.
7. _____ I use your laptop? I need to print out this report.
8. Before you start to make a website, you _____ decide how to organize the content.
Complete the conversation between a web designer and his client:
Web designer (WD): So (must/should/can) I ask what kind of (web page/website/home page) you want?
Client (C): Well, I’m a singer in a band, and I (needn’t/must/need) an online presence to help with promotion, that kind of thing. I don’t want anything too complicated. It’d be good if it looked nice, though. Perhaps a nice (backgroung/graphics/text) and some attractive (backgroung/graphics/RSS feeds).
WD: OK, that doesn’t sound too complicated. Will you need (streaming audio/plug-ins/Cascading Style Sheets) and (HTML/PDFs/full motion video) , too? I mean, do you want people to be able to listen to your music direct from the site and watch music videos, that kind of thing?
C: Yes, it’d be great if people (could/may/should) do that.
WD: OK, well a visitor (must/might/should) need to download the appropriate (plug-in/HTML/graphics) , but that’s very easy. And what about (Cascading Style Sheets/wallpaper/RSS feeds) ? It’s good if people (may/can/needn’t) find out about any new updates to the site automatically.
C: Sure, but how expensive is all of this going to be?
D: You (may not/can’t/needn’t) worry. It sounds like the kind of job that we’ll do using a (Cascading Style Sheets/web editor/tag) like Dreamweaver. That’ll make things quicker – and cheaper – than hard-coding in (text/HTML/RSS feeds). We also now use something called (Cascading Style Sheets/HTML/plug-ins) , which allow us to add styles to web documents. It’s basically a way of making presentation changes across a website more easily. When do you want the site to (go live/go on/go out)?
C: In a month, if possible. I’ve already written all of the (text/graphics/streaming audio). (Must/Should/Needn’t) I just email that to you?
WD: Yes, please do. I (can/must/might) be able to start work on this next week.
C: OK. Actually, that reminds me, I need to get in touch with the other members of the band and ask them to send me any images that they want to put on the site. Which file formats do you prefer?
WD: Jpeg or gif are best for images, and avi or mpeg for video files. Oh, and any audio files (must/might/could) be in mp3 or wav. That’s better than Real Audio files, which some media players (can’t/needn’t/mustn’t) play.
C: No problem.
WD: OK, then. Once I have all of the files, I’ll (publish/updated/format) the text, insert the graphics and sounds, link all of the pages together, and then we can publish the website. You (should/can/might) try and keep it updated, too. I can help with that, for only a small fee.
C: Great, that sounds perfect.
Translate the following sentences into English:
1. Чи зможете Ви мені допомогти?
2. Що йому потрібно робити?
3. Невже наша команда програла?
4. Їм доведеться провести цей дослід самостійно.
5. Вам слід знати різницю між цими двома пристроями.
6. Я не зміг зрозуміти, про що вони кажуть.
7. Їм не слід поспішати.
8. Можливо, він не робив цього.
9. Нашим студентам можна відвідувати обчислювальний центр.
10. Напевне, цю статтю ще не переклали.
Translate the following proverbs and learn them by heart:
1. Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today.
2. A man can die but once.
3. As you sow, you shall mow.
4. As you make your bed, so you must lie on it.
5. Can the leopard change his spots?
6. It would make even a cat laugh.
7. What can't be cured, must be endured.
(L) Listening (block I):
a) In this interview, Sarah Almy describes how to plan, design and publish a website. Listen and put these steps in the correct order:
□ Publish the website
□ Insert computer graphics and sounds
□ Keep website updated
□ Weave together related pages with hyperlinks
□ Write and format the text
□ Decide the content and structure for the website
b) Listen again and decide whether these design tips (or guidelines) are Right or Wrong.
1. Plan your website carefully.
2. Use a Web editor. It will make it easier to create your pages.
3. Insert photos or animations just to make the pages look attractive.
4. Place a large number of graphics on your pages.
5. Use very bright colours.
6. Put a lot of links on one page.
7. Check that all the links on your Web pages are correct.
8. Once they are published, update your pages regularly.
Look at the text and illustrations below and find the answers to these questions:
1. What are HTML codes called?
2. What's the function of HTML codes?
3. What type of program allows you to design a web page without writing HTML?
4. How can you view the source code of any web page?
5. How do you connect your home page with the other pages that you have created?
Creating web pages
You can create a basic web page using a text editor or a word processor, but you need to know a code called HTML, or Hypertext Mark-up Language. This consists of HTML commands, called tags, which are placed around pieces of text to tell the web browser how to display text or graphics. You can enter different commands to define text size and font, format paragraphs, add colour, etc.
All HTML files:
· start with <HTML>
· have heading text that begins with <HEAD>, which has a title enclosed between tags, and ends with </HEAD>
· have body text that starts with <BODY>, where you place the contents of the actual document (i.e. text, images, links, etc.), and ends with </BODY>
· end with </HTML>
You can also create links to other web pages by using the tag <A HREF="filename">active text</A>
If you are not familiar with HTML, you can use a Web editor like Microsoft FrontPage or Macromedia Dreamweaver to simplify the process. Web editors are user-friendly and WYSIWYG (What you see is what you get). Different buttons and menu items enable you to design a page without writing HTML, i.e. they automatically produce the tags for text, tables, image maps, frames, etc. You can view the source code for any page you like by clicking the option "Page source" in the browser's menu.
Websites with an effective use of graphics are more inviting and communicative than plain text. So you may like to insert different types of pictures: scanned photos, bars, icons, backgrounds, and moving images.
Once you have created a few pages, you should join them together with hyperlinks. A hyperlink is a piece of highlighted text or a picture that acts as a link to another page. You can place local links to help readers navigate through your pages. You may also like to insert external links to other people's websites.
Can you recognize these basic HTML tags? Match them with the correct function:
(L) Listening (block II):
Listen to a dialogue between Reeta, an expert on search engine optimisation, and her client. Listen again and match the words and definitions:
(S) Speaking (block I):
a) Look at the homepage of Yahoo and try to answer these questions:
· Why do people create and publish web pages?
· What does a website consist of?
· What is a homepage?
· What is an Internet portal?
b) Think about your favourite websites.
· Do you like the way they are designed? Explain why.
· What elements do you think a good website should have? Make a list.
Work through this questionnaire with a partner:
1 What do you use the Web for?
2 What is your favourite search engine? Why?
3 Music portals have become very popular on the Net. Which one do you like most? Why?
4 Would you be interested in accessing the Internet through your "TV?
5 Do you know how to use the HTML language?
6 Have you ever used a web editor to create web pages?
7 What sort of web pages would you like to make?
8 Is there anything you'd like to have on the Internet that you can't have yet?
In small groups, collect information about your college or company and design a web homepage for it.
(SR) Supplementary reading
Do you know…
Most programs that you purchase are copyrighted and you must not copy them. If you do so you may be breaking the law and if caught, you could find yourself being prosecuted! Many people will buy a copy of a game and make a copy for their friends or other family member. This is also normally unlawful. Even lending your program disks or CD-ROM to other people may be breaking the law in most cases. There are numerous organizations, such as FAST (the Federation Against Software Theft), which are dedicated to preventing the illegal copying of software. In a business situation, if your manager tells you to copy software, ALWAYS first make sure that you have a license that entitles you to copy the software, because in many countries, you will be personally liable for damages!
More Information: The Federation Against Software Theft http://www.fast.org.uk
What is freeware?
Some software is made freely available. Demonstration disks often come under this category. In addition, a lot of software is produced by the educational community and is made freely available. Always read any licenses supplied with such software very carefully before use.
More information: http://download.cnet.com/?st.dl.freewarecom..redir
Shareware is software that is freely available and is designed to let you use the product for free, for a limited period while you decide if you like it or not. After this period, you must legally either remove it, or pay an amount to the producers of the product.
More information: http://shareware.cnet.com
There are some sites on the Internet run by dubious organization’s that might make copies of commercial software freely available. If you download any software from the Internet, make sure that it is legal!
Many large companies do not go out and buy a certain amount of 'shrink-wrapped' copies of each software product that they need, instead they will buy a site license. These site licenses are different in their small print, but generally mean that the companies purchasing the license can make a fixed numbers of copies available to their staff, normally via a company network.
Complete these extracts from wikis about cybercrime by typing in the past simple form of the verbs in brackets. Then decide what kind of cybercrime each wiki is describing:
1. In July 2001, the online file-sharing network Napster (shut) its website following legal action from several major record labels. (piracy/spreading of malicious software/IP spoofing)
2. In late
3. The first well-known worm (be) the Internet Worm of 1988, which (infect) SunOS and VAX BSD systems. (distribution of indecent or offensive material/theft of intellectual property/spreading of malicious software)
4. A 2007 study (find) that 28% of female internet users had experienced online harassment. In 84% of cases, the incidents (happen) in a chat room. (theft of intellectual property/cyberstalking/phishing)
5. In 2008, author J K Rowling (say) that a company trying to publish an online Harry Potter encyclopedia had “stolen her words”. (cyberstalking/phishing/theft of intellectual property)
Complete the conversation between an Internet Service Provider (ISP) and a customer. Type words from the box into spaces 1–16. Then choose the correct words to complete the sentences.
ISP Helpdesk Operator (HO): Customer support, good morning.
Customer (C): Yeah, hi. (Who/How/What) am I speaking to?
HO: My name’s Martin. (Who/How/What) can I help?
C: I’m having some problems with my (1)_____ connection. I can’t get online.
HO: OK. I’m sure I can help. Let me just quickly check your (2) ___ address …
C: My what? What (do/did/does) that mean?
HO: It’s just a unique series of numbers that identifies your computer when it’s online. OK, just wait a sec … Mmm … Is your (3) _____ plugged in and working OK?
C: Is that the same as the (4) _____ router? The thing that plugs into the phone line?
HO: Yes. (do/are/is) the lights flashing?
C: Yes, they’re flashing really fast.
HO: OK. Just turn the router off and on at the back. (Is/Does/Do) it working now?
C: Yes, it is. (Who/Why/What) did that happen?
HO: It’s nothing serious – sometimes you just need to reset the router. Is there anything else I can help you with?
C: Actually, yes. I’m paying all this money for one of those fast, what do you call them, (5) _____ connections, but all I’m using the computer for is checking (6) _____ and looking up information on the (7) _____. (What/How) else can I do with all this technology?
HO: Well, have you tried instant (8) _____? You know, having real-time chats with friends over the Internet?
C: (How old/How fast/How often) do you think I am? That sounds like the kind of thing my 15-year-old son would be into, not me!
HO: OK, well (how old/how fast/how often) is your connection? If it’s very fast, then you can take advantage of (9) _____ – that means downloading files from the Internet onto your hard drive. It’s a feature that is built into your web (10) _____, so it’s very easy to use. You can download music, films, anything you want, really.
C: That sounds expensive. (How old/How fast/How much) does it cost to download a song?
HO: It depends on the site. Another thing you might want to try is (11) _____ – public discussion areas on nearly any topic. It’s part of a system called Usenet. You’ll need a (12) _____ – that’s a program that lets you view and post messages – and a (13) _____ and password. It’s all very easy.
C: OK, that all sounds interesting. Thanks for all …
HO: Actually, you might be interested in a new product we’ve launched this week. Can I ask which (14) _____ you use?
C: Outlook Express.
HO: OK, we have some new anti-(15) _____ software that helps detect junk email by looking for suspicious words in the subject line of the email. It also looks for suspicious (16) _____ – that’s how viruses are normally sent between computers. It only costs £5.99 a month and …
(S) Speaking (block II):
Read and translate the following text and get ready to speak on it:
The famous figures of art and science of
Isaac Newton is a famous mathematician who worked out a basic formula which we call the binominal theorem now. He is also the discoverer of the Law of Gravitation.
Ernest Rutherford, a famous English physicist worked in the field of radioactivity. He was one of the founders of the atomic theory of physics and creators of the first atomic model.
Henry Bessemer is one of the greatest inventors of the 19th century. He invented the new process of steel production, the so-called Bessemer process.
Joseph John Thomson is a discoverer of the electron, the discovery of the electron and the investigation of its nature led to a revolution in physical science.
Michael Faraday founded the theory of electric and magnetic fields. He made his major discovery in the field of electricity – the electromagnetic induction.
We can’t also help mentioning Alexander Fleming, the discoverer of penicillin. The great work that he did was done for the benefit of sick men and women. His discovery of penicillin did more to help suffering mankind than anything else for centuries.
These and many other outstanding people of this country have made great contribution to world culture and science.
Answer the following questions:
1. What English famous people do you know?
2. Which of the English scientists in your opinion made the greatest contribution to the world science?
3. Could you imagine our life without penicillin?
4. Who discovered the Law of Gravitation?
5. What do you know about W. Shakespeare? Name some of his works.
6. What is your favourite English writer?
7. Do you know any poems of English poets?
8. Can we learn English without reading English books in the original?
9. What is your favourite book written by one of the English writers?
10. Who was named “A queen of the detective stories”?
11. Do you like science-fiction?
12. What’s your favourite story by Arthur Conan Doyle?
13. Where did “The Beatles” come from?
14. What’s the motherland of football?
15. Which of the England’s great people graduated from Oxford and Cambridge?