YEAR OF STUDY II
(G) Grammar: Revision:
Passive Voice, Passive Constructions
(R) Reading: Internet software: e-mail, Web browser, newsreader, IRC/chats, FTP, conferencing, Telnet
(SR) Supplementary reading: The Internet
(L) Listening What’ the Internet
(S) Speaking: Surfing the Internet
History, culture and traditions of GB
(G) Grammar (block I):
Translate the following sentences, paying attention to the verbs with definite prepositions:
15. Magnetic amplifiers have bееn employed for more than fifty years; transistors were first reported uроn in 1948 - 1949.
16. The speed with which arithmetic operations are performed is affected bу а number of factors, isn’t it?
Verbs + Prepositions
Insert the correct preposition:
1. What does it depend ____?
2. The language is used ____ data transfer ___ the Internet.
3. This piece of software allows this system to work ____ your modem.
4. Newsgroups are the public discussion areas which make ____ a system called “Usenet”.
5. Internet telephone and video chatting are based ___ IRC protocols.
6. This piece of hardware is much spoken ____.
7. You can also click ____ keywords or buttons.
8. This music is listened ____ by many people.
9. It has to deal ____ your Internet Service Provider.
Consider the sentences with passive constructions and translate them:
1. Аnу information mау bе represented bу the binary system.
2. Bits are grouped in units; these units are called bytes.
3. Which of the operations is to bе performed next?
4. Ву whom are language modifications being offered?
5. The sequence of operations is being performed bу the microcomputer.
6. Маnу graphics programs are controlled bу а mouse or some other device.
7. Often only the new models are given detailed description.
8. The instruction is to bе extended.
9. When the information has bееn stored in the computer's memory, it саn bе calculated, compared and copied.
10. А keyname is the nаmе of а setting. It саn consist of аnу combination of letters and digits, and must bе followed bу аn equal sign.
11. Programs larger than normal will not bе assembled bу Turbo Assembler.
12. Sometimes а decision to compute is followed bу а process of selecting the particular kind of computing machine best suited for the given problem.
13. The relationship bеtwееn the computers and the people that use them has bееn given much attention.
14. Some of the binary digits in the word correspond to аn operation and are entered into the operation part of the register; other binary digits of this word represent аn address and are correspondingly entered into the address part of the register.
Complete the following blog entry by giving the passive form of the verbs in brackets:
Translate into English:
1. Цю інформацію часто шукають в Інтернеті.
2. Я вважаю, що до згоди прийдуть рано чи пізно.
3. Вас уважно слухали, чи не так?
4. Пробачте, на мене чекають.
5. На цю статтю часто посилались.
6. Цей сканер з цікавістю оглядали на виставці.
7. На це повідомлення не звернули ніякої уваги, чи не так?
8. З цією людиною не варто мати справу.
9. Над цим планом ретельно попрацювали.
10. Газети проглядають кожен день.
11. Такий модем не можна підключати до мережі – можна вивести з ладу все устаткування.
12. Великобританія відома у всьомі світі як високорозвинена країна, чи не так?
Adjectives with Prepositions
Which Internet utility (1 to 7) would you use to do each of these tasks (a to g)? Read the text below to check your answers:
The language used for data transfer on the Internet is known as TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/Internet protocol). This is like the Internet operating system.
The first program you need is a PPP (point to point protocol) driver. This piece of software allows the TCP/IP system to work with your modem; it dials up your Internet service provider (ISP), transmits your password and log-in name and allows Internet programs to operate.
E-mail is your personal connection to the Internet. It allows you to exchange messages with people all over the world. It can include text, pictures, and even audio and animation.
When you set up an account with an ISP, you are given a unique address and anyone can send you e-mail. The mail you receive is stored on the server of your ISP until you next connect and download it to your hard disk.
The Web is a hypertext-based system where you can find news, pictures, games, online shopping, virtual museums, electronic magazines - any topic you can imagine.
You navigate through the Web using a program called a “browser”, which allows you to search and print Web pages. You can also click on keywords or buttons that take you to other destinations on the net. This is possible because browsers understand hypertext markup language (HTML), a set of commands that indicate how a Web page is formatted and displayed.
IRC, audio and video chatting
IRC - Internet relay chat -is a system for real-time (usually typed) conversation. It's easy to use. To start a chat session you run an IRC program, which connects you to an IRC server - a computer dedicated to IRC. Then you join a channel, which connects you to a single chat area. Next you type a message and the other participants can see it.
Internet telephone and video chatting are based on IRC protocols. Videoconferencing programs enable users to talk to and see each other, and collaborate. They are used in intranets - company networks that use Internet software but make their Web site accessible only to employees and authorized users.
FTP and Telnet
With FTP software you can copy programs, games, images and sounds from the hard disk of a remote computer to your hard disk. Today this utility is built into Web browsers. A Telnet program is used to log directly into remote computer systems. This enables you to run programs kept on them and edit files directly.
Newsgroups are the public discussion areas 60 which make up a system called 'Usenet'. The contents of the newsgroups are contributed by people who send articles (messages) or respond to articles. They are classified into categories: comp (computers), misc (miscellaneous), news (news), rec (recreation), soc (society), sci (science), talk and alt (alternative).
Read the text again and choose the right answer:
1) An Internet service provider (ISP) is ______
a. a program that connects you to the Internet.
b. a company that gives you access to the Internet.
2) HTML is ______
a. the software which allows you to fetch and see Web pages.
b. the codes used to create hypertext documents for the Web.
3) An IRC channel is ________
a. an IRC discussion area.
b. computer system dedicated to IRC.
4) Usenet is _______
a. a big system of public discussion groups.
b. a newsgroup.
5) An intranet is ________
a. like a small version of the Internet inside a company.
b. a commercial online service.
a) Read the text below. Use the words from the box to fill in the gaps making any necessary changes:
Cindy Lewis is a journalist. She works for Gender, a weekly magazine on the (a) _________. Cindy writes the problem page for the magazine. Cindy has two young children so she doesn’t work in the magazine office every day, she works at home using her (b) _________.
Every morning she checks her (c) _________. She switches on her computer and her (d) ________. She starts Outlook Express. This is the (e) _________ which Cindy uses.
She (f) _________ her e-mail messages. She usually receives about 35 messages every day. Most of the messages come from the Gender office, but she also gets messages from friends and colleagues around the world. They send messages to her (g) _________. Sometimes they just send messages with (h) _________. Some friends send longer pieces of writing in a (i) _________, or photographs in an (j) _________, or even music in a (k) _________. Cindy can (l) _________ these _________ and see the texts, pictures or listen to the recordings.
Cindy’s e-mail address is firstname.lastname@example.org. Demon is a company which Cindy uses to (m) _________ her e-mail and the Internet. Demon is an ISP, an (n) _________.
b) Look at the different parts of Cindy’s e-mail address. Can you name the different parts?
2. This shows that Demon is a commercial organisation.
3. The user
4. Domain name (sometimes called the “host”)
Demon is in the
Read the text below. Then match the words or phrases to the definitions below:
Cindy uses the Internet to find the information she needs. For example, last week she wanted to find out about the history of an illness called polio. She switched on her computer and modem. She opened the web browser program called Internet Explorer. She clicked on the Favourites menu and selected the search engine called Altavista. She typed the word “polio” into a box and clicked the button marked ‘search’. In a few seconds her computer showed a list of websites about polio. She clicked the first website URL and her computer showed the homepage of The Polio Society. She looked through the list of contents. She clicked the button marked “History”. The history page gave her the information she needed.
a) Something which you click on a website page which takes you to another page. _________
b) A list of website addresses which you want to visit regularly called Bookmarks by Netscape or Favourites by Internet Explorer. _________
c) A place on the Internet that gives you information about a particular subject. _________
d) A program which looks for particular words or phrases in websites on the Internet. _________
e) A software program which allows you to access and navigate the Internet such as Netscape Navigator or Internet Explorer. _________
f) The address which takes you to a website. _________
Read the text “Brief history of the Web” and put the correct form of the words in the gaps. One example (address) is done for you.
Personal computers (PCs) Small computers which people use at work/home.
A network Computers joined together so that they can communicate.
The Internet A network of millions of computers around the world.
Electronic mail (email) A way of sending and receiving messages on the Internet.
The World Wide Web A user-friendly way of looking at words or pictures and listening to sounds on the Internet. Also called the Web or the WWW.
A browser Computer software used to look at the Web.
A site A place on the Internet, also called a webpage.
An address The location of a site/webpage.
Brief history of the Web
The _________________ has existed since 1969. It was created by the USA military as a way of communicating even after a nuclear war. Universities soon used it. At first it was only used to send and receive _________________ messages. Thirty years ago computers were very big and very expensive. Today millions of people use computers at home and at work. Many people can afford to have a _________________ at home and, at work, computers are joined over _________________s. In 1991 _________________ was invented. Now people looked at words, saw pictures and even heard sounds from around the world on their PCs. The Web was very popular. In 1987 there were 10,000 webpages but by 1992 there were more than one million _________________s and many millions of webpage addresses. Thirty years ago a few people used the Internet to send email. Today, all you need is a PC and a ____________ like Explorer to discover the wonderful world of the Web.
Complete this product description of an internet security program. Type in the missing words using the mixed-up letters in brackets:
EFG (1) [inta-riuvs] software is the only program you need for complete protection from online threats.
EFG scans all incoming and outgoing email attachments, helping to protect your PC against (2) [rivessu], (3) [romsw], (4) [Torsjan] and other types of (5) [lawmare]. A (6) [lawlrife] shields your system from attack by (7) [reschak], while the program can also detect if a website’s (8) [igidlat ercteacfiti] is out-of-date or suspicious, allowing you to carry out financial transactions online with total security.
In addition to all of the above, the EFG Professional Edition also comes with email (9) [crynetipon] and the EFG (10) [rawsyep] scanner, helping you to keep your system free of unwanted advertising and (11) [socoiek].
EFG Basic is available to download as (12) [warfeeer] by clicking here. Alternatively, you can purchase the EFG Professional Edition for only £29.95. Click here to visit our (13) [rescue witebes] or pay using PayPal by clicking here.
(S) Speaking (block I):
The picture illustrates a typical web page. Look at the box above, then find the following features in the picture:
· go to the home page
· retrace your steps
· go forward one page
· interrupt the current transfer
· update a page
· find words within a page
· load and display the page's images
4. Clickable hypertext link
What’s your e-mail address? In your group find out everyone’s e-mail address.
Ask your partner these questions:
1. Have you got a computer at home? What do you use it for?
2. Do you use a computer at work / school / university? What for?
3. What do you know about the history of the Internet?
4. Do you use the Internet at home, at work? What do you use it for?
5. Which of the following can you use: chat, instant messenger, Skype, a webcam?
6. Have you ever bought anything on the Net? If so, what?
7. What is the Internet?
8. What can you do on the Internet? Make a list of possible applications.
9. What web site do you visit to chat with friends?
10. Which chat channels are you interested in?
11. Do you talk with strangers during web chats?
12. Do you use your real name or a nickname?
13. How long do you usually spend at the terminal?
Look at these tasks and choose the most suitable Web site from the cyberlist:
Work in small groups. Find out about the groups favourite websites. Do you know the addresses? Make a list of the top five.
(SR) Supplementary reading (block I):
Read one of the abstracts below and get ready to give brief summary of it in Ukrainian:
The Internet is a global network of interconnected networks.
The unique thing about the Internet is the sheer amount of information that you can access from it. Whatever your interest you can search for and find information on the most obscure topics.
As a research tool the Internet is an incredibly valuable tool. Whether you are gathering information about a rival company on the other side of the world, or are looking for information about your family tree, you will find there is plenty of information available.
If you publish material on the Internet, it can be accessed by everyone on the Internet (providing they can find it!). As a marketing tool, this has interesting possibilities. It is possible for a small company to sell products and services worldwide, without the need for a single sales-person!
These days the problem is often not finding information but rather dealing with the sheer amount of information that is available. Also, when it comes to the Internet you have no idea how accurate or up to date a lot of the information you access really is.
More information about search engines: http://www.searchenginewatch.com
To search the Internet you use what are called Internet search engines. These are easily accessed via your Internet browser (i.e. Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator/Communicator). Within the search engine, you enter a word or phrase and it will retrieve documents from the Internet based on the information you typed in.
International search engine examples include:
MSN Internet Search http://search.msn.com
Web Crawler http://www.webcrawler.com
UK Plus http://www.ukplus.co.uk
Yell - UK Yellow Pages http://www.yell.co.uk
Lycos UK http://www.lycos.co.uk
Infoseek UK http://www.infoseek.co.uk
Searching with a search engine
A search engine is a device that sends out inquiries to sites on the web and catalogs any web site it encounters, without evaluating it. Methods of inquiry differ from search engine to search engine, so the results reported by each one will also differ. Search engines maintain an incredibly large number of sites in their archives, so you must limit your search terms in order to avoid becoming overwhelmed by an unmanageable number of responses.
Search engines are good for finding sources for well-defined topics. Typing in a general term such as "education" or "Shakespeare" will bring back far too many results, but by narrowing your topic, you can get the kind (and amount) of information that you need.
· Go to Google (a search engine)
· Type in a general term ("education")
Add modifiers to further define and narrow your
topic ("rural education
Be as specific as you can ("rural education
· Submit your search.
Adjust your search based upon the number of responses you receive (if you get too few responses, submit a more general search; if you get too many, add more modifiers).
The benefits of E-mail
When you send an email its transmission is often almost instantaneous. This is especially useful when sending a message to someone in a different country. Also, unlike when using a telephone you do not have to worry about whether the recipient of a message, living on the other side of the world, may be asleep! When they wake up, they can read their email and reply to you!
A single email can simultaneously be sent to many different people. This can be very useful in a business environment, however this facility can be abused and it is now possible for people to send email via the Internet to millions of people. This rather stupid habit is known as Spamming by the Internet community and is very strongly disapproved of!
To send and receive email you require a computer, plus the necessary hardware and software.
There are two basic types of email that you need to know about.
Internal company emails are sent and received via your company’s LAN (Local Area Network). These are normally private systems that can only be accessed by people working within your organization.
If you are connected to the Internet, then you can send or receive emails sent by another individual or organization that is also Internet connected.
You will need email software to compose and send an email, but increasingly this is actually built into Windows, and many people will now compose their email within Microsoft Word and then use the Windows system to also send the email for them.
If you are connected to your organization’s LAN (Local Area Network), you will need a network card (board) in your computer. In many cases, Windows itself can then be used to connect to your company’s server PCs. In other cases, your organization may use specialist network software such as Novell's NetWare.
In a large company, you may often also connect to the Internet via your LAN. In other cases, you may require a modem to be connected to your computer to allow you to access the telephone system and then the Internet. In most cases the actual mechanics of connecting to the LAN and the Internet will have been setup for you by your organization's IT support staff. If you are working at home on your own or for a small company then setting up a connection to the Internet is a relatively simple task.
If you are sending a traditional letter to many people, then you have
to pay a fixed price for each person that you are sending the letter to. The
great thing about email is that when you have the correct software you can
send to one person or many people for almost the same price and that price
will be a fraction of the cost of using traditional posted letters. The other
great thing about email is that transmission of the email is almost instant.
Whether the recipient is in the next room or on the other side of the world.
If you need to telephone someone living in a different time zone then you
need to consider the time at that location. If however you send an email from
Complete the online chat by choosing the correct abbreviations from the table below:
Will: How ______(r/u/b) things?
Nick: Good, thanks. _____(r/u/2)?
Will: Not bad. Need 2 talk _______(IOW/ASAP/IMO) 2 discuss the new website.
Nick: OK. _______(F2F/TIA/IC) or on the phone?
Will: Meet _____(2/u/4) coffee? I need 2 get out of the house! _____(BBS/BTW/LOL)
Nick: _______(IC/GL/ur)! ______(b/2/c) u at the café at 3.30?
Will: Great. _______(BBS/BFN/IOW).
We often use abbreviations in online chats and Instant Messaging:
It's OK to use chat abbreviations, but try not to rely on them too much -they can make a conversation difficult to follow. They are also very informal.
Peter Morgan, the director of Text Link, is talking to a journalist about the Internet. Listen and complete the journalist's notes.
Listen to David giving his presentation about eBay in a business school seminar.
Listen and correct the mistakes in this student’s notes on David’s presentation.
1. eBay was founded five years ago
2. eBay employs 12,600 people around the world
4. From the beginning top eBay management had successful computer backgrounds
5. eBay has got shops all over the world
6. eBay is successful in Japan and Hong Kong
(SR) Supplementary reading (block II):
Translate the text into English, use the following words and word-combinations:
to be obliged to
from the ancient times
as time passes
to be relative
solemn coming out
the changing of the Guard
glory and greatness
Багато англійських традицій завдячують своєю появою тим чи іншим історичним подіям. Великобританію неможливо уявити без своїх традицій, які супроводжують кожного британця від народження до смерті. Багато англійських традицій дійшло до нас із далекого минулого, вони широко висвітлені в англійській літературі. Але все змінюється з плином часу. Змінюються і традиції. Деякі з них носять досить умовний характер.
Звичаї та традиції того чи іншого народу є втіленням його історії, культури та психології.
Урочистий виїзд королеви та її тронна промова з нагоди відкриття сесії Парламенту, спікер, який сидить на мішку з вовни в палаті Лордів, караул в старовинній фортеці біля Букінгемського палацу, вóрони, які живуть в Тауері – все це не лише ефектна декорація, яка приваблює іноземних туристів, а й спроба зберегти відбитки булої слави та величі Британії.
Do you know…
There’s a legend that the
The fireplace is a symbol
of a happy family life in
· Many English have many customs and manners they can be proud of. Among them is English humour. It’s an irony directed against oneself only.
(G) Grammar (block II):
Complete the following sentences:
2. It is not a small port, ____________?
There is much rain in
There no high mountains in
6. It doesn’t occupy very large space of land, __________?
7. Fish is caught on all parts of the coast, ___________?
8. It is not caught only in rivers, ____________?
9. Fishermen have lots of work to do, ___________?
10. They haven’t got much time to rest, ___________?
The symbol of
12. You have never been to this country, ____________?
Put the verbs in the brackets in the Past simple:
Under King Henry VIII nobles /build/ _________ estates outside
5. The West End thus /begin/ _________ to develop.
The king /own/
_________ six palaces in
In 1547 Henry VIII /die/ _________, the
(S) Speaking (block II):
Answer the following questions:
Could you imagine
If you went to
3. Have you ever talked to an Englishman?
Would you like to live in
5. What English traditions do you like?
6. What do Englishmen think about the Royal family?
7. What do you think about modern English people?
If you had a chance of visiting
Read and translate the following text and get ready to speak on it:
History, culture and traditions of Great Britain
years ago, about the 4th century A.D. the country we now call
In time, however,
the Britons in the South learned to grow corn, to work in metal and to do
other useful things. They traded with the nearest part of Europe which is now
In the 1st
complete political union - the United Kingdom of Great
Britain - was at last archived in 1801. By the 18th
The English are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. All English people celebrate Christmas on the 25th of December. It's the most beautiful time of the year — the time of love, joy, hopes. Christmas Day is the birthday of Christ and it is a family holiday. It is the time when all the family gets together round the Christmas tree decorated with toys and sweets. Little children believe that when they are asleep Santa Claus comes with a big bag of toys. They often hang up large stockings for the presents. All families have Christmas dinners. They eat traditional dishes - turkey, duck and pudding. There is also a pleasant custom to send cards and letters with the words: "Merry Christmas".
There are some traditions on New Year's Day. One of them is the old First Footing. The first man to come into the house is very important. The Englishmen believe him to bring luck. This man (not woman) must be healthy, young, pretty-looking. He brings presents - bread, a piece of coal or coin.
are only some of the traditions and customs existing in