Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3


Unit 4

Unit 5

Unit 6

Unit 7

Словник комп'ютерних термінів

Граматичні таблиці

Список літератури



Unit 6


(G) Grammar:                                 Revision:

Passive Voice, Passive Constructions

Question Tags


(R) Reading:                                    Internet software: e-mail, Web browser, newsreader, IRC/chats, FTP, conferencing, Telnet

(SR) Supplementary reading:          The Internet

Electronic mail

English legends

(L) Listening                                    What’ the Internet


(S) Speaking:                                   Surfing the Internet

History, culture and traditions of GB


(G) Grammar (block I):


Exercise 1G.

Translate the following sentences, paying attention to the verbs with definite prepositions:

  1. The Congress was adressed by a well-known scientist.
  2. Our teacher is listened to with great attention.
  3. The text of the message will be carefully worked at.
  4. He looked through the weather forecasts in the Internet.
  5. At this lesson special attention is paid to the translation of passive constructions.
  6. His books are often referred to by many scientists.
  7. The use of the Internet was spoken of at the previous lesson.
  8. This e-mail was attentively looked at, wasn’t it?
  9. His reports were listened to with great pleasure.
  10. The agreement was arrived at at midnight.
  11. The research work of this student is much spoken about in the group.
  12. Are you being waited for?
  13. These documents were sent for a week ago, weren’t they?
  14. This bad habit must be got rid of.

15.                       Magnetic amplifiers have bееn employed for more than fifty years; transistors were first reported uроn in 1948 - 1949.

16.                       The speed with which arithmetic operations are performed is affected bу а number of factors, isn’t it?


Verbs + Prepositions

accuse — звинувачувати

consist — складатися

get rid — позбавитись

inform — повідомляти

take care — піклуватися

think — думати


comment — коментувати

congratulate — поздоровляти

depend — залежати

insist — наполягати

rely — покладатися


amount — дорівнювати

apologize — вибачатись

belong — належати

happen — траплятись

listen — слухати

object — заперечувати

pay attention — приділяти увагу

prefer — надавати перевагу

refer — посилатись на, називати(сь)

subscribe — підписуватись


care — турбуватися

hope — сподіватися

leave — від’їжджати

prepare — готуватись

send — посилати за

start — відправлятися

wait — чекати


borrow — позичати

differ — відрізнятися

judge — судити

prevent — заважати

recover — поправлятися

suffer — страждати


end — закінчуватися

result — спричиняти

succeed — удаватися


deal — мати справу


arrive дійти до

work працювати над



Exercise 2G.

Insert the correct preposition:

1.     What does it depend ____?

2.     The language is used ____ data transfer ___ the Internet.

3.     This piece of software allows this system to work ____ your modem.

4.     Newsgroups are the public discussion areas which make ____ a system called “Usenet”.

5.     Internet telephone and video chatting are based ___ IRC protocols.

6.     This piece of hardware is much spoken ____.

7.     You can also click ____ keywords or buttons.

8.     This music is listened ____ by many people.

9.     It has to deal ____ your Internet Service Provider.

10.                     Great Britain consists ____ 3 countries.



about — здійснювати, викликати

along — приносити

back — нагадувати

in — вносити (на розгляд)

out — опубліковувати

up — виховувати


across — зустрічати випадково

by — дістати

down — спускатися, сходити вниз

out — виходити


along — жити в злагоді

behind — відставати

into — входити, заходити

off — виходити

out — зникати


away — видавати

in — здаватися

out — розподіляти

up — відмовлятися, втрачати надію


in — подавати заяву

off — відкладати

out — гасити


at – дивитися на

after – піклуватися

for – шукати

through – проглядати


Exercise 3G.

Consider the sentences with passive constructions and translate them:

1.     Аnу information mау bе represented bу the binary system.

2.     Bits are grouped in units; these units are called bytes.

3.     Which of the operations is to bе performed next?

4.     Ву whom are language modifications being offered?

5.     The sequence of operations is being performed bу the microcomputer.

6.     Маnу graphics programs are controlled bу а mouse or some other device.

7.     Often only the new models are given detailed description.

8.     The instruction is to bе extended.

9.     When the information has bееn stored in the computer's memory, it саn bе calculated, compared and copied.

10.           А keyname is the nаmе of а setting. It саn consist of аnу combination of letters and digits, and must bе followed bу аn equal sign.

11.           Programs larger than normal will not bе assembled bу Turbo Assembler.

12.           Sometimes а decision to compute is followed bу а process of selecting the particular kind of computing machine best suited for the given problem.

13.           The relationship bеtwееn the computers and the people that use them has bееn given much attention.

14.           Some of the binary digits in the word correspond to аn operation and are entered into the operation part of the register; other binary digits of this word represent аn address and are correspondingly entered into the address part of the register.


Exercise 4G.

Complete the following blog entry by giving the passive form of the verbs in brackets:


23rd February

We had an interesting discussion about mobile phones in class today. Opinion (divide) about whether they’re a good thing or not. Despite the fact that mobile phones (invent) to make our lives more convenient (supposedly!), it’s clear that we’ve become totally dependent on them. Most of the class even use them to watch videos or listen to music.

They’re expensive, too. Most people said they spent over £20 a month on their phone, despite the fact that free calls and text messages (include) in most tariffs these days. Part of the problem is that MMS messages aren’t free, and many calls (make) during the day, when the free minutes don’t count.

There was also some worry about the potential health problems of mobile phones. Despite all the warnings, mobile phones (use) by children as young as five or six these days! The really worrying thing is that the true damage done by mobile phones (not know) until we’re all much older. By then, it’ll be too late! No one was suggesting that they should (ban), but clearly more research needs to (do).


Exercise 5G.

Translate into English:

1.       Цю інформацію часто шукають в Інтернеті.

2.       Я вважаю, що до згоди прийдуть рано чи пізно.

3.       Вас уважно слухали, чи не так?

4.       Пробачте, на мене чекають.

5.       На цю статтю часто посилались.

6.       Цей сканер з цікавістю оглядали на виставці.

7.       На це повідомлення не звернули ніякої уваги, чи не так?

8.       З цією людиною не варто мати справу.

9.       Над цим планом ретельно попрацювали.

10.  Газети проглядають кожен день.

11.  Такий модем не можна підключати до мережі – можна вивести з ладу все устаткування.

12.  Великобританія відома у всьомі світі як високорозвинена країна, чи не так?


Adjectives with Prepositions

able — здатний

attentive — уважний

equal — рівний

evident — очевидний

grateful — вдячний

harmful — шкідливий

thankful — вдячний


afraid — переляканий

ashamed — присоромлений

aware — проінформований, обізнаний

certain — впевнений

conscious — усвідомлюючий

ignorant — неосвічений

proud — гордий

worthy — гідний


dependent — залежний


bad — поганий

clever — розумний

good — хороший

quick — швидкий

skilful — умілий


anxious — стурбований

clear — ясний, виразний

curious — цікавий

doubtful — сумнівний

glad — радісний

happy — щасливий

hopeful — з надією

sad — сумний

serious — серйозний

wrong — неправильний


angry — злий

busy — зайнятий

familiar — обізнаний


eager — нетерплячий

famous — відомий

important — важливий

necessary — необхідний

ready — готовий

sorry — співчутливий

suitable — підходящий

useful — корисний



(R) Reading


Exercise 1R.

Which Internet utility (1 to 7) would you use to do each of these tasks (a to g)? Read the text below to check your answers:


1)   e-mail

2)   Web browser

3)   Newsreader

4)   IRC/chat program

5)   FTP software

6)   Videoconferencing

7)   Telnet

a)  send a message to another person via the Internet

b)  transfer files from the Internet to your hard disk

c)   have a live conversation (usually typed) on the Internet

d)  connect to a remote computer by entering certain instructions and run programs on it

e)   take part in public discussion areas, called newsgroups

f)    fetch and view Web pages on the Internet

g)  participate in live conversations, using text, audio and video


Internet software

Getting connected

The language used for data transfer on the Internet is known as TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/Internet protocol). This is like the Internet operating system.

The first program you need is a PPP (point to point protocol) driver. This piece of software allows the TCP/IP system to work with your modem; it dials up your Internet service provider (ISP), transmits your password and log-in name and allows Internet programs to operate.


E-mail is your personal connection to the Internet. It allows you to exchange messages with people all over the world. It can include text, pictures, and even audio and animation.

When you set up an account with an ISP, you are given a unique address and anyone can send you e-mail. The mail you receive is stored on the server of your ISP until you next connect and download it to your hard disk.

Web browsers

The Web is a hypertext-based system where you can find news, pictures, games, online shopping, virtual museums, electronic magazines - any topic you can imagine.

You navigate through the Web using a program called a browser”, which allows you to search and print Web pages. You can also click on keywords or buttons that take you to other destinations on the net. This is possible because browsers understand hypertext markup language (HTML), a set of commands that indicate how a Web page is formatted and displayed.

IRC, audio and video chatting

IRC - Internet relay chat -is a system for real-time (usually typed) conversation. It's easy to use. To start a chat session you run an IRC program, which connects you to an IRC server - a computer dedicated to IRC. Then you join a channel, which connects you to a single chat area. Next you type a message and the other participants can see it.

Internet telephone and video chatting are based on IRC protocols. Videoconferencing programs enable users to talk to and see each other, and collaborate. They are used in intranets - company networks that use Internet software but make their Web site accessible only to employees and authorized users.

FTP and Telnet

With FTP software you can copy programs, games, images and sounds from the hard disk of a remote computer to your hard disk. Today this utility is built into Web browsers. A Telnet program is used to log directly into remote computer systems. This enables you to run programs kept on them and edit files directly.


Newsgroups are the public discussion areas 60 which make up a system called 'Usenet'. The contents of the newsgroups are contributed by people who send articles (messages) or respond to articles. They are classified into categories: comp (computers), misc (miscellaneous), news (news), rec (recreation), soc (society), sci (science), talk and alt (alternative).


Exercise 2R.

Read the text again and choose the right answer:


1)  An Internet service provider (ISP) is ______

a.   a program that connects you to the Internet.

b.  a company that gives you access to the Internet.

2)  HTML is ______

a.   the software which allows you to fetch and see Web pages.

b.  the codes used to create hypertext documents for the Web.

3)  An IRC channel is ________

a.   an IRC discussion area.

b.  computer system dedicated to IRC.

4)  Usenet is _______

a.   a big system of public discussion groups.

b.  a newsgroup.

5)  An intranet is ________

a.   like a small version of the Internet inside a company.

b.  a commercial online service.


Exercise 3R.

a)                Read the text below. Use the words from the box to fill in the gaps making any necessary changes:


attachments    Internet Service Provider    text file    open attachments   Internet     image file    download (email messages)     modem     access (the Internet) computer     sound file       e-mail program      e-mail messages  e-mail address



Cindy Lewis is a journalist. She works for Gender, a weekly magazine on the (a) _________. Cindy writes the problem page for the magazine. Cindy has two young children so she doesn’t work in the magazine office every day, she works at home using her (b) _________.

Every morning she checks her (c) _________. She switches on her computer and her (d) ________. She starts Outlook Express. This is the (e) _________ which Cindy uses.

She (f) _________ her e-mail messages. She usually receives about 35 messages every day. Most of the messages come from the Gender office, but she also gets messages from friends and colleagues around the world. They send messages to her (g) _________. Sometimes they just send messages with (h) _________. Some friends send longer pieces of writing in a (i) _________, or photographs in an (j) _________, or even music in a (k) _________. Cindy can (l) _________ these _________ and see the texts, pictures or listen to the recordings.

Cindy’s e-mail address is Demon is a company which Cindy uses to (m) _________ her e-mail and the Internet. Demon is an ISP, an (n) _________.


b)                Look at the different parts of Cindy’s e-mail address. Can you name the different parts?

1.                “at”

2.                This shows that Demon is a commercial organisation.

3.                The user

4.                Domain name (sometimes called the “host”)

5.                Demon is in the United Kingdom (Britain).


Exercise 4R.

Read the text below. Then match the words or phrases to the definitions below:



Cindy uses the Internet to find the information she needs. For example, last week she wanted to find out about the history of an illness called polio. She switched on her computer and modem. She opened the web browser program called Internet Explorer. She clicked on the Favourites menu and selected the search engine called Altavista. She typed the word “polio” into a box and clicked the button marked ‘search’. In a few seconds her computer showed a list of websites about polio. She clicked the first website URL and her computer showed the homepage of The Polio Society. She looked through the list of contents. She clicked the button marked “History”. The history page gave her the information she needed.


a)     Something which you click on a website page which takes you to another page. _________

b)    A list of website addresses which you want to visit regularly called Bookmarks by Netscape or Favourites by Internet Explorer. _________

c)     A place on the Internet that gives you information about a particular subject. _________

d)    A program which looks for particular words or phrases in websites on the Internet. _________

e)     A software program which allows you to access and navigate the Internet such as Netscape Navigator or Internet Explorer. _________

f)      The address which takes you to a website. _________


Exercise 5R.

Read the text Brief history of the Web” and put the correct form of the words in the gaps. One example (address) is done for you.


Personal computers (PCs) Small computers which people use at work/home.

A network Computers joined together so that they can communicate.

The Internet A network of millions of computers around the world.

Electronic mail (email) A way of sending and receiving messages on the Internet.

The World Wide Web A user-friendly way of looking at words or pictures and listening to sounds on the Internet. Also called the Web or the WWW.

A browser Computer software used to look at the Web.

A site A place on the Internet, also called a webpage.

An address The location of a site/webpage.


Brief history of the Web

The _________________ has existed since 1969. It was created by the USA military as a way of communicating even after a nuclear war. Universities soon used it. At first it was only used to send and receive _________________ messages. Thirty years ago computers were very big and very expensive. Today millions of people use computers at home and at work. Many people can afford to have a _________________ at home and, at work, computers are joined over _________________s. In 1991 _________________ was invented. Now people looked at words, saw pictures and even heard sounds from around the world on their PCs. The Web was very popular. In 1987 there were 10,000 webpages but by 1992 there were more than one million _________________s and many millions of webpage addresses. Thirty years ago a few people used the Internet to send email. Today, all you need is a PC and a ____________ like Explorer to discover the wonderful world of the Web.


Exercise 6R.

Complete this product description of an internet security program. Type in the missing words using the mixed-up letters in brackets:



EFG (1) [inta-riuvs] software is the only program you need for complete protection from online threats.

EFG scans all incoming and outgoing email attachments, helping to protect your PC against (2) [rivessu], (3) [romsw], (4) [Torsjan] and other types of (5) [lawmare]. A (6) [lawlrife] shields your system from attack by (7) [reschak], while the program can also detect if a website’s (8) [igidlat ercteacfiti] is out-of-date or suspicious, allowing you to carry out financial transactions online with total security.

In addition to all of the above, the EFG Professional Edition also comes with email (9) [crynetipon] and the EFG (10) [rawsyep] scanner, helping you to keep your system free of unwanted advertising and (11) [socoiek].

EFG Basic is available to download as (12) [warfeeer] by clicking here. Alternatively, you can purchase the EFG Professional Edition for only £29.95. Click here to visit our (13) [rescue witebes] or pay using PayPal by clicking here.


(S) Speaking (block I):


·      URL: uniform resource locator, the address of a file on the Internet. A URL looks like this:

-     “http://” means hypertext transfer protocol and tells the program to look for a web page

-     “www” means World Wide Web

-     “” is the domain name and tells people that it is a commercial enterprise

·      navigation buttons: buttons on the toolbar which allow you to go back or forward to other web pages. You can also return to your start-up page or stop the transfer when the circuits are busy

·      links: shortcuts (underlined text or images) that, when clicked, take you to other web pages

·      security on the Web: just a few websites are secure. When the page is not encrypted, the security lock is open


Exercise 1S.

The picture illustrates a typical web page. Look at the box above, then find the following features in the picture:


  1. URL address
  2. Basic functions of the toolbar:

·        go to the home page

·        retrace your steps

·        go forward one page

·        interrupt the current transfer

·        update a page

·        find words within a page

·        load and display the page's images

  1. Clickable image link

4.     Clickable hypertext link


Exercise 2S.

What’s your e-mail address? In your group find out everyone’s e-mail address.


Exercise 3S.

Ask your partner these questions:

1.            Have you got a computer at home? What do you use it for?

2.            Do you use a computer at work / school / university? What for?

3.            What do you know about the history of the Internet?

4.            Do you use the Internet at home, at work? What do you use it for?

5.            Which of the following can you use: chat, instant messenger, Skype, a webcam?

6.            Have you ever bought anything on the Net? If so, what?

7.            What is the Internet?

8.            What can you do on the Internet? Make a list of possible applications.

9.            What web site do you visit to chat with friends?

10.       Which chat channels are you interested in?

11.       Do you talk with strangers during web chats?

12.       Do you use your real name or a nickname?

13.       How long do you usually spend at the terminal?


Exercise 4S.

Look at these tasks and choose the most suitable Web site from the cyberlist:


1    Read about environmental problems

2    Get news reports

3    Find out about specific hardware and software

4    Make flight reservations

5    Read about films and Hollywood awards

6    Search for web addresses

http ://www.greenpeace. org/


Exercise 5S.

Work in small groups. Find out about the groups favourite websites. Do you know the addresses? Make a list of the top five.


(SR) Supplementary reading (block I):


Exercise 1SR.

Reading comprehension.

Read one of the abstracts below and get ready to give brief summary of it in Ukrainian:


The Internet

What is the Internet and how is it useful?

The Internet is a global network of interconnected networks.

The unique thing about the Internet is the sheer amount of information that you can access from it. Whatever your interest you can search for and find information on the most obscure topics.

As a research tool the Internet is an incredibly valuable tool. Whether you are gathering information about a rival company on the other side of the world, or are looking for information about your family tree, you will find there is plenty of information available.

If you publish material on the Internet, it can be accessed by everyone on the Internet (providing they can find it!). As a marketing tool, this has interesting possibilities. It is possible for a small company to sell products and services worldwide, without the need for a single sales-person!

These days the problem is often not finding information but rather dealing with the sheer amount of information that is available. Also, when it comes to the Internet you have no idea how accurate or up to date a lot of the information you access really is.

More information about search engines:

Internet Search Engines

To search the Internet you use what are called Internet search engines. These are easily accessed via your Internet browser (i.e. Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator/Communicator). Within the search engine, you enter a word or phrase and it will retrieve documents from the Internet based on the information you typed in.

International search engine examples include:

Alta Vista






MSN Internet Search

Web Crawler


UK specific search engine examples include:

The UK Index

UK Plus

Yell - UK Yellow Pages

G.O.D. a UK Search Engine

Lycos UK

Infoseek UK

Searching with a search engine

A search engine is a device that sends out inquiries to sites on the web and catalogs any web site it encounters, without evaluating it. Methods of inquiry differ from search engine to search engine, so the results reported by each one will also differ. Search engines maintain an incredibly large number of sites in their archives, so you must limit your search terms in order to avoid becoming overwhelmed by an unmanageable number of responses.

Search engines are good for finding sources for well-defined topics. Typing in a general term such as "education" or "Shakespeare" will bring back far too many results, but by narrowing your topic, you can get the kind (and amount) of information that you need.


·           Go to Google (a search engine)

·           Type in a general term ("education")

·           Add modifiers to further define and narrow your topic ("rural education Indiana")

·           Be as specific as you can ("rural education Indiana elementary school")

·           Submit your search.

Adjust your search based upon the number of responses you receive (if you get too few responses, submit a more general search; if you get too many, add more modifiers).


Electronic Mail

The benefits of E-mail

When you send an email its transmission is often almost instantaneous. This is especially useful when sending a message to someone in a different country. Also, unlike when using a telephone you do not have to worry about whether the recipient of a message, living on the other side of the world, may be asleep! When they wake up, they can read their email and reply to you!

A single email can simultaneously be sent to many different people. This can be very useful in a business environment, however this facility can be abused and it is now possible for people to send email via the Internet to millions of people. This rather stupid habit is known as Spamming by the Internet community and is very strongly disapproved of!

What is required to use E-mail?

To send and receive email you require a computer, plus the necessary hardware and software.

There are two basic types of email that you need to know about.

Internal company emails are sent and received via your company’s LAN (Local Area Network). These are normally private systems that can only be accessed by people working within your organization.

If you are connected to the Internet, then you can send or receive emails sent by another individual or organization that is also Internet connected.

You will need email software to compose and send an email, but increasingly this is actually built into Windows, and many people will now compose their email within Microsoft Word and then use the Windows system to also send the email for them.

If you are connected to your organization’s LAN (Local Area Network), you will need a network card (board) in your computer. In many cases, Windows itself can then be used to connect to your company’s server PCs. In other cases, your organization may use specialist network software such as Novell's NetWare.

In a large company, you may often also connect to the Internet via your LAN. In other cases, you may require a modem to be connected to your computer to allow you to access the telephone system and then the Internet. In most cases the actual mechanics of connecting to the LAN and the Internet will have been setup for you by your organization's IT support staff. If you are working at home on your own or for a small company then setting up a connection to the Internet is a relatively simple task.

The cost of email vs. conventional mail

If you are sending a traditional letter to many people, then you have to pay a fixed price for each person that you are sending the letter to. The great thing about email is that when you have the correct software you can send to one person or many people for almost the same price and that price will be a fraction of the cost of using traditional posted letters. The other great thing about email is that transmission of the email is almost instant. Whether the recipient is in the next room or on the other side of the world. If you need to telephone someone living in a different time zone then you need to consider the time at that location. If however you send an email from say, London to California, then when the recipient goes to their office the is message waiting for them.


Exercise 2SR.

Complete the online chat by choosing the correct abbreviations from the table below:

Will: How ______(r/u/b) things?

Nick: Good, thanks. _____(r/u/2)?

Will: Not bad. Need 2 talk _______(IOW/ASAP/IMO) 2 discuss the new website.

Nick: OK. _______(F2F/TIA/IC) or on the phone?

Will: Meet _____(2/u/4) coffee? I need 2 get out of the house! _____(BBS/BTW/LOL)

Nick: _______(IC/GL/ur)! ______(b/2/c) u at the café at 3.30?

Will: Great. _______(BBS/BFN/IOW).


Chat abbreviations

We often use abbreviations in online chats and Instant Messaging:


As soon as possible


Laughing out loud


Be back soon


Thanks in advance


Bye for now




By the way




Face to face




Good luck




Hug and kiss




I see




I love you




In my opinion




In other words


you’re Welcome

It's OK to use chat abbreviations, but try not to rely on them too much -they can make a conversation difficult to follow. They are also very informal.


(L) Listening


Task (Recording 10)   icon

Exercise 1L.

Peter Morgan, the director of Text Link, is talking to a journalist about the Internet. Listen and complete the journalist's notes.


·         To connect to the Internet you need:

(1)_______________ (2) _______________ (3) _______________

·         One cable of the modem is connected to the (4) _______________ of yourcomputer and the other to the (5) _______________.

·         To get your Internet identity yov need to have an account with a (6) _______________, a company that offers connection for an annual fee.

·         Services offered by the Internet: (7) _______________

(8) _______________

(9) _______________

(10) _______________

(11) _______________

·          The Web is a huge collection of (12) _______________ stored on computers all over the world.


Task (Recording 11)   icon

Exercise 2L.

Listen to David giving his presentation about eBay in a business school seminar.

Listen and correct the mistakes in this student’s notes on David’s presentation.


1. eBay was founded five years ago

2. eBay employs 12,600 people around the world

3. In 2005 the turnover was $ 5.55 million

4. From the beginning top eBay management had successful computer backgrounds

5. eBay has got shops all over the world

6. eBay is successful in Japan and Hong Kong


(SR) Supplementary reading (block II):


Exercise 3SR.

Translate the text into English, use the following words and word-combinations:


to be obliged to


historical events

to accompany

from the ancient times

to depict

as time passes

to be relative

an embodiment

solemn coming out

Lord Chancellor

wool sack

the changing of the Guard

Buckingham Palace


the Tower

to attract

an attempt


glory and greatness


Багато англійських традицій завдячують своєю появою тим чи іншим історичним подіям. Великобританію неможливо уявити без своїх традицій, які супроводжують кожного британця від народження до смерті. Багато англійських традицій дійшло до нас із далекого минулого, вони широко висвітлені в англійській літературі. Але все змінюється з плином часу. Змінюються і традиції. Деякі з них носять досить умовний характер.

Звичаї та традиції того чи іншого народу є втіленням його історії, культури та психології.

Урочистий виїзд королеви та її тронна промова з нагоди відкриття сесії Парламенту, спікер, який сидить на мішку з вовни в палаті Лордів, караул в старовинній фортеці біля Букінгемського палацу, вóрони, які живуть в Тауері – все це не лише ефектна декорація, яка приваблює іноземних туристів, а й спроба зберегти відбитки булої слави та величі Британії.


Exercise 4SR.

Do you know…

·          There’s a legend that the Tower of London will fall if it loses its ravens. The birds with clipped wings are therefore carefully guarded.

·          The fireplace is a symbol of a happy family life in England. Englishmen are fond of spending their evening round the fireplace. It’s a very old tradition.

·          Many English have many customs and manners they can be proud of. Among them is English humour. It’s an irony directed against oneself only.



(G) Grammar (block II):


Exercise 6G.

Complete the following sentences:

1.            Hull is the biggest fishing port, _________?

2.            It is not a small port, ____________?

3.            There is much rain in England, ________?

4.            There no high mountains in Great Britain, _________?

5.            Scotland occupies the nothern part of Great Britain, _________?

6.            It doesn’t occupy very large space of land, __________?

7.            Fish is caught on all parts of the coast, ___________?

8.            It is not caught only in rivers, ____________?

9.            Fishermen have lots of work to do, ___________?

10.       They haven’t got much time to rest, ___________?

11.       The symbol of England is a rose, ____________?

12.       You have never been to this country, ____________?


Exercise 7G.

Put the verbs in the brackets in the Past simple:

1.  In 1209, London Bridge /become/ _________ the first stone bridge across the Thames.

2.               London's craft and trade guilds /begin/ _________ to develop.

3.               London /grow / _________ rapidly.

4.       Under King Henry VIII nobles /build/ _________ estates outside London's walls.

5.               The West End thus /begin/ _________ to develop.

6.               The king /own/ _________ six palaces in London, including the Palace of Westminster.

7.               In 1547 Henry VIII /die/ _________, the palace of Westminster became the place of Parliament.


(S) Speaking (block II):


Exercise 6S.

Answer the following questions:

1.            Could you imagine Great Britain without its customs and traditions?

2.            If you went to Britain would you have so much tea?

3.            Have you ever talked to an Englishman?

4.            Would you like to live in Great Britain?

5.            What English traditions do you like?

6.            What do Englishmen think about the Royal family?

7.            What do you think about modern English people?

8.            If you had a chance of visiting Britain where would you go first?

Exercise 7S.

Read and translate the following text and get ready to speak on it:


History, culture and traditions of Great Britain

Great Britain like any country has a long history which reflects different stages of its historical development.

Many hundreds years ago, about the 4th century A.D. the country we now call England was known as Britain. And the people who lived there were the Britons. They belonged to the Celtic [‘keltik] race, the language they spoke was Celtic. They were primitive people in economy and culture.

In time, however, the Britons in the South learned to grow corn, to work in metal and to do other useful things. They traded with the nearest part of Europe which is now called France, but at that time it was called Gaul. A class of priests called the Druids who had great power over them governed the Britons.

In the 1st century BC Britain was conquered by the power state of Rome. The conquest of England by the Normans began in 1066 with the battle of Hastings. Normans were Viking or men from the North. The role of the Norman conquest was important for the development of feudalism and absolute monarchy in Britain. This can explain why Britishmen still preserve the institution of monarchy in their country. They respect their queen highly and consider all the members of the Royal family to be symbols of the nation. Englishmen are very conservative in everything: traditions, clothing and behaviour.

The United Kingdom as a country appeared only in the 17th century after centuries of wars and struggle. As a result of these wars North Ireland became the first colony of Great Britain. The history of North Ireland has been and still is the history of hard struggle of the Irish people for national freedom. From the early times the English monarchs were waging century wars of conquest on the Wales, the Scots and the Irish for the unification with these countries. They were originally separate and independent kingdoms. Wales was won by military force long ago. Scotland after centuries of bloodshed conflicts was united to England dynastically and peacefully. Ireland was both conquered and colonized with expropriation and colonization.

The complete political union - the United Kingdom of Great Britain - was at last archived in 1801. By the 18th century England had become a great Sea Power, which opened potentialities of exploration and trade. Later on the English love of exploration and trade developed into colonization and slave trade.

The British Empire was being built for three centuries. But it collapsed in some 20 years after the Second World War. All the colonies of Great Britain became free and independent states.

At present Great Britain is a cultural country. It has original culture and arts. Great Britain gave the world many brilliant names in literature and culture. The literature of Great Britain is known for its rich and ancient traditions. The names of William Shakespeare, Jonathan Swift, George Gordon Byron, Charles Dickens, Daniel Defoe, Walter Scott, Agatha Christie, Rudyard Kipling, Robert Burns and many other names are dear to all those who love literature. Their names are known in the whole world.

Great Britain like other countries has many different traditions and customs. The English are a nation of stay-at-homes. The Englishman says "My house is my castle". The English people prefer small houses with a fire place. The love of gardens is deep-rooted in the British people. They like their gardens and speak about them with great pleasure. The British like growing plants in a window box outside the kitchen or in the garden near the house. They love flowers very much.

Britain is a nation of animal-lovers. They have about 5 million dogs, almost as many cats, 3 million parrots and other cage birds, aquarium fish and 1 million exotic pets such as reptiles. In Britain they have special shops selling food, clothes and other things for dogs. In Britain pets can send Christmas cards to their friends, birthday cards. There are special animal hotels at the airports. The English people believe that they are the only nation on the earth that is really kind to its animals.

The English are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. All English people celebrate Christmas on the 25th of December. It's the most beautiful time of the year the time of love, joy, hopes. Christmas Day is the birthday of Christ and it is a family holiday. It is the time when all the family gets together round the Christmas tree decorated with toys and sweets. Little children believe that when they are asleep Santa Claus comes with a big bag of toys. They often hang up large stockings for the presents. All families have Christmas dinners. They eat traditional dishes - turkey, duck and pudding. There is also a pleasant custom to send cards and letters with the words: "Merry Christmas".

There are some traditions on New Year's Day. One of them is the old First Footing. The first man to come into the house is very important. The Englishmen believe him to bring luck. This man (not woman) must be healthy, young, pretty-looking. He brings presents - bread, a piece of coal or coin.

These are only some of the traditions and customs existing in Great Britain. There are so many traditions and customs in this country that it is impossible to mention all of them.