YEAR OF STUDY II
(G) Grammar: Conditional Sentences
Recognizing file formats
(SR) Supplementary reading: Systems Development
(L) Listening A multimedia system
Revision of software, Telecommunications
At the map of Great Britain
(G) Grammar (block I):
Translate into Ukrainian:
1. Don’t go home until you finish work.
2. If I see my friend I’ll tell you about it.
3. I’ll join you if you want.
4. If she comes to see me I’ll be glad to invite her to my place.
5. If he writes this report in time he will be able to participate in the conference.
6. When she passes the exam well she will go to visit her friends.
7. If we come home early I’ll be able to prepare my hometask properly.
8. You will get good results if you apply this method of calculation.
9. If you press the button the device will start working.
10. When I see him next time I’ll tell him about the meeting.
11. As soon as I find out her address I’ll come to see her.
12. Wait until they show you how to charge it.
Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian:
Example: If I were you I wouldn’t do it.
На твоєму місці я б цього не робив.
If he had more money he could buy this scanner.
Якби в нього було більше грошей, він купив би цей сканер.
1. If you were informed about this meeting you would come.
2. If the books on this subject were available in our library I could be able to make a better report.
3. If he had all the necessary materials he would accomplish his new model in time.
4. If the air were only composed of nitrogen burning would be impossible.
5. The design would be ready by the end of the year if they supplied us with all the necessary equipment.
6. If he were at the institute now he would help us to translate the article.
7. If he had worked much at his English he would have passed his exam much better.
8. If all people were alike life wouldn’t be so interesting.
9. If I had been there I would have told you.
10. If you had a
chance of studying at
Translate into Ukrainian:
1. If the engineer had been informed of the results before he would have allowed you to repeat the test.
2. The plan wouldn’t have been fulfilled in time if the people hadn’t worked with such energy.
3. If he hadn’t been so late then he wouldn’t have missed the train.
4. If he had come to the Institute meeting 2 days ago she would have met a well-known English writer.
5. If you had taken a taxi you would have come in time.
6. If I had known your address when I was in your town I would have visited you.
7. If you had given up smoking you wouldn’t have got ill.
8. If he had followed the rules when he was writing a dictation he wouldn’t have made so many mistakes.
9. If I had had the opportunity of studying abroad when I was a student my English could have been much better.
10. If they had informed me about it in time I could have refused.
Use the proper verb form:
1. As soon as he (to ask) me I’ll help him.
2. If it (not to rain) in the morning we should go out.
3. If I (to meet) my friend yesterday I should have given him this book.
4. If it (not to be) so cold we should go out.
5. If the telegram (to bring) the day before yesterday I could have come in time.
6. If I (to notify) in advance I’ll be able to get ready for the lecture.
Continue the sentences:
1. I can't give up smoking. I wish ….
2. I haven't аnу cigarettes. I wish ….
3. George isn't here. I wish ….
4. It's cold. I wish ….
5. I have to work tomorrow. I wish ….
6. I don't know anything about cars. I wish ….
Make one sentence in Subjunctive Mood of two:
1. I didn't wake George because I didn't know he wanted to get up early.
2. I was аblе to buy the car because Jim lent mе the mоnеу.
3. She wasn't injured in the crash because she was wearing а seat belt.
4. She didn't buy the coat because she didn't have enough mоnеу with her.
Read these sentences. Identify the tenses used in the if-clause and in the main clause:
1 If you upgrade your PC, you'll be able to run multimedia applications.
2 If the marketing manager had a multimedia system, she could make more effective presentations.
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form:
1. If I (get) a sound card,
I'll be able to create my own music with a
2. If the system (have) a SuperVGA card, we would obtain a better resolution.
3. You won't be able to play CD-ROM disks if you (not have) a CD-ROM drive.
4. If you (come) to the annual computer exhibition, you could see the new Macs.
5. If I could afford it, I (buy) a Multimedia PC.
Translate into English:
1. На його місці я б погодився на цю роботу.
2. Якби вона була вдома вчора, я б відвідав її.
3. Якщо мене попросять про допомогу, я допоможу.
4. Якби мені запропонували поїхати в Англію, я б неодмінно поїхала.
5. На Вашому місці я б не поспішав з відповіддю.
6. Якби Ви прочитали цю книжку, ми могли б обговорити її минулого разу.
7. Якщо я тільки виграю в лотерею, я одразу поїду до Лондона.
8. Якби я не почув Вашого голосу, я б вас не впізнав.
9. А що б Ви зробили на моєму місці?
10. Якщо ви запізнитесь, ви не зможете почути всю доповідь.
Read the abstracts and match them with the headings in the box:
Multimedia applications are used in all sorts of fields. For example, some museums, banks and estate agents have information kiosks that use multimedia. Companies produce training programmes on optical disks, and marketing managers use presentation packages (e.g. Microsoft PowerPoint) to make business presentations. Teachers use multimedia programs to make video projects or to teach subjects such as music and languages. They have all found that moving images, sound and music involve viewers emotionally as well as inform them, and make their message more memorable.
The power of multimedia resides in hypertext and hypermedia. If you click on a hypertext word, you jump to another screen with more information about that subject. Hypermedia is similar, but also works with sound, graphics and video.
To capture sounds
in digital format and play them back, modern PCs contain a sound card. This
is a type of expansion card which offers two important capabilities: (i) a
built-in stereo synthesizer and (ii) a system called Musical Instrument
Digital Interface, or
You can also listen to music on your PC. Many radio stations broadcast on the Web using a technique called 'streaming'. This lets you play an audio file in a continuous stream, while it's downloading, before the entire file is transmitted. Sometimes bands transmit concerts on the Web in a process called “webcast”. To listen to online music you just need a plug-in like RealPlayer.
There are two ways of storing photos on a computer. The first way is to use a digital camera. Photos are stored in a memory chip and then they're downloaded to the computer. The second way is to scan printed photos by using a scanner. With special software you can repair flaws, add effects and even save your photos on a CD.
Video is another important part of multimedia. Video computing refers to recording, manipulating and storing video in digital format. In fact, today you can make your own movies on your PC. This is what you have to do: First capture images with a digital video camera and then transfer the digital video to your computer. Next, with a video editing program (e.g. iMovie) cut your favourite segments, re-sequence the clips and add transitions and other effects. Finally, save your movie on a video CD, a DVD or a videotape. You can also place your work on the Internet.
Multimedia software is usually interactive and comes on CD-ROMs or DVDs. For example, the Compton's Encyclopedia enables you to read about whales, look at photos of whales, listen to whale songs, and view animated sequences. Similarly, the Grolier Encyclopedia lets you read about birds, view pictures of birds, and listen to recordings of their songs.
Other CD-ROMs include games, guides, dictionaries and educational courses about history, science, the human body, cinema, literature and foreign languages.
Read the texts again and correct these statements. There is a technical mistake in each of them:
1 Multimedia PCs cannot integrate text with graphics and video.
2 You don't need to have a sound board on your PC to hear speech and music.
3 Most multimedia software is distributed on magnetic disks.
4 Digital cameras store photos in a roll of film.
5 There are no language courses available on CD-ROM.
Match these terms in the box with the explanations:
1 The process of manipulating video images.
2 A code for the exchange of information between PCs and musical instruments
3 Text with hyperlinks, which take you to other pages.
4 A concert or other event that is transmitted over the Web.
5 A technique for playing sound and video files as a continuous stream, while they're downloading.
Read the text below and find:
1. the function of the extension that is usually added to a file name
2. the language used to create the majority of text files on the Web
3. the graphics interchange format created by CompuServe to compress images
4. the small program (plug-in) that lets you hear audio recordings on the Net
5. the most popular video formats
6. the format created by the Moving Picture Experts' Group to capture, store and play back movies
7. the extension for the files that can be decompressed with a program like Winzip.
Recognizing file formats
Web pages can contain different multimedia elements: text, graphics, sounds, video and animation. To identify the format or type of file, an extension (a three-letter suffix) is usually added to the file name when it's saved on disk.
The most common text extensions are .txt, .pdf, .doc and .htm (or .html). Most of the text files that you find on the Web have the extension .htm, created with the hypertext markup language.
Graphics on the Web can include pictures, photos, paintings, image-maps and buttons. The most common formats are .gif (a standard image format developed by CompuServe) and .jpg or .jpeg (created by the Joint Photographic Experts' Group).
The Internet is a great place to find and hear hit songs, movie soundtracks and recorded interviews. The most common formats are these:
· .wav: wave files can be played with Sound Recorder included with Windows
· .ra or .ram: RealAudio files can be heard with RealPlayer, a plug-in you can download from the Web.
· .mp3: compressed music files that can be played with an MP3 player.
Video and animation
You can see cartoons and movie clips on the Web, but you need the appropriate software. Video files are usually stored in: .avi, .mov and .mpg (or .mpeg) formats. To view MPEG videos you just need Video for Windows. However, to create high-quality movie clips you need a dedicated MPEG expansion card. You can also find animation and 3-D worlds. The two standard tools to manipulate animated worlds are VRML and Java. To view a virtual animation you need a program like QuickTime VR.
When you download files, they're probably compressed. Windows files have a .zip extension. Macintosh files usually have a .sit extension and are opened with Stufflt.
Unscramble the letters to complete the definitions from an online dictionary:
1. dheasenpho:___________ device which covers each ear and allows you to listen to audio without other people hearing
2. pertyhtex: ___________ text with links to other text or other parts of a document or web page
3. tacvitiyniter: __________ allowing two-way communication between a program and the user
4. pormicnohe: ___________ equipment that allows you to record your voice
5. batscew: ___________ a concert or other event broadcast over the Internet
Complete the following blog entry by typing in terms from the box above into spaces 1–10. (You will not need to use all of the terms.) Then choose the correct verb forms:
Complete the presentation describing the network by choosing words from the box:
Clare: If you (1) __________ the diagram, you can see that it represents a wide area network, or WAN, connecting two networks via (2) __________. The two networks are probably two offices of the same company.
Chris: The (3) __________network on the right – the one in Barcelona – is (4) __________ of a number of PCs connected by (5) __________. You’ll be able to see the (6) __________ there, which acts as a file server, allowing (7) __________ between the other PCs on the network. In order to access files on the server, you would probably need to (8) __________ a username and password.
Clare: That’s right, Chris. In contrast, the Los Angeles network (9) __________ a wireless router, which links all of the hardware devices without the need for cables. Workers using PDAs or laptops, like those shown in the diagram, would be able to (10) __________ to the network if they had wireless capabilities. Interestingly, while in Barcelona the (11) __________ is linked to the dish aerial with a(12) __________, in Los Angeles they’re using regular (13) __________. This may mean slower speeds for the Los Angeles office.
Chris: It looks like this network was (14) __________ to allow the two offices to (15) __________ and share information and resources on each other’s systems, and it’s a sensible network solution for a company with offices in several different locations.
(L) Listening (block I):
a) A sales assistant is explaining the components of a multimedia system to a customer. Listen and complete this diagram:
Compare your answers with another student.
b) Now listen again and answer these questions:
1. What is multimedia?
2. What is the advantage of computer multimedia presentations over TV and video?
3. Which system software is designed by Apple for multimedia work?
a Windows with Multimedia control panels
(SR) Supplementary reading (block I):
Do you know…
Most IT projects work in cycles. First, the needs of the computer users must be analyzed. This task is often performed by a professional Systems Analysts who will ask the users exactly what they would like the system to do, and then draw up plans on how this can be implemented on a real computer based system.
The programmer will take the specifications from the Systems Analyst and then convert the broad brushstrokes into actual computer programs. Ideally at this point there should be testing and input from the users so that what is produced by the programmers is actually what they asked for.
Finally, there is the implementation process during which all users are introduced to the new systems, which often involves an element of training.
Once the users start using the new system, they will often suggest new improvements and the whole process is started all over again.
These are methodologies for defining a systems development cycle and often you will see four key stages, as listed below:
· Feasibility Study
You are going to read a newsapaper article about shopping on the Internet. Choose the best heading from the list (A-G) for each part (1-5). There are two extra headings that you do not need to use:
Shopping on the Internet
1. Shopping on the Internet, or shopping on-line is becoming more and more popular. More and more people are using the Internet to buy things. Why do people use the Internet to shop?
2. Some people say it is more convenient. They don't have to leave their homes to order something, and they can shop for anything they want at any time, day or night. Other people say they can find things for sale that they can't find in the stores near their homes. Still other people say they can find better prices on the Internet.
3. If you want to buy something on the Internet, you need a credit card. You have to type your credit card number and some other information on the website and send it to the store over the Internet. You have to be sure that the store will not use your information in the wrong way. You don't want someone to get your credit card number and charge something to your account. Of course, you always have to be careful with your credit card number, because people sometimes steal credit card numbers from stores and restaurants too.
4. For people who are too nervous to shop on-line, the Internet is a good place to go window-shopping. Window-shopping is when you go to a store and look at the things for sale, but don't plan to buy anything. Window-shopping is easy on the Internet. You can see what kinds of products are available and how much they cost. You can visit stores with branches near you, or you can visit stores that are only on the Internet.
5. Some stores have a website for information about their stores, but not for shopping. Some stores have a website for information about their stores, and you can shop on-line there too. Some stores are only for on-line shopping.
A A certain time for shopping on the Internet
B Growing popularity of the Internet
C Getting credit cards from other people
D Window-shopping as a way-out for people who are afraid to buy something
E The reasons of using the Internet for shopping
F Websites for stores
G The necessity to have a credit card for buying something
(L) Listening (block II):
Revision of software
Look at the list of software products and number the items in the order in which you hear them described:
□ Graphics and design
□ Multimedia application
□ Database program
□ Web editor
□ Educational software
□ Musical software
(S) Speaking (block I):
mountain top is Ben Nevis in
Due to the
geographical position of the country, the weather in GB is very changeable. A
fine morning can change into a wet afternoon and evening and the wrong side
out. The English people say:"Other countries have a climate; in
The population of the
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a constitutional monarchy. But the power of Queen Elizabeth II is not absolute. It is limited by Parliament. In fact, the Prime Minister is the actual leader of the state. The legislative body, Parliament, consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The executive body consists of the central Government — that is the Prime Minister and the Cabinet of Ministers, who are responsible for initiating and directing the national policy.
The Government derives its authority from the elected House of Commons. General elections, for all seats in the House of Commons, must be held at least every five years. The Government is normally formed by the political party which is supported by the majority in the House of Commons. The leader of the party is appointed the Prime Minister by the Queen and chooses a team of ministers. The second largest party becomes the Official Opposition with its own leader and «Shadow Cabinet». The House of Lords is a hereditary chamber.
Places now in the heart of
A hundred years ago, the
river was crowded by ships, leaving for Java and
Like all big cities,
Many people live outside the
By the day the whole of
Many people think that
Answer the questions:
What is the National anthem of
2. Who is the head of the state?
What is the longest river in
4. What cities are famous for their universities?
What are the capital cities of
Who reigns but doesn't rule in
Put questions to these answers:
2. The British Open University offers instruction through radio and television and Internet.
3. The famous annual Wimbledon Tennis Tournament takes place in June and July.
Do you know…
· What plant blooms long before it comes into leaf? (the blackthorn – also the cherry and the plum tree)
· What tree is the last to blossom? (The lime tree)
When the Royal Observatory in
Give the Ukrainian equivalents to the following proverbs:
· It never rains but it pours.
· After rain comes fair weather.
· Small rain lays great dust.
· Everything is good in its season.
· To tremble as an aspen leaf.
· To put money by for a rainy day
(L) Listening (block III):
Listen to a telecommunications expert talk about the most recent developments in this sector and decide whether the statements are true or false:
Paul Carr is an expert in the IT sector..…………………………..…....(T/ F)
Until Skype arrived VOIP technology was difficult to use..……..……(T/ F)
Skype claim 85 million customers globally..……………………….….(T/ F)
Skype spend a lot of money on advertising..…………………….….…(T/ F)
Skype have no competitors..…………………………..…………....….(T/ F)
It is not possible to use Skype in the UK..………………….…….…....(T/ F)
Fibre optics will change Internet use..…………………….………...…(T/ F)
(S) Speaking (block II):
Student: (pointing at the map):
This is the map of
T.: How is it separated from theContinent of
S.: By the
T.: How narrow is it?
S.: It is just
T.: What part of the
S.: They form its southern part.
T.: That’ll do. You’ve done well. Thanks.
Complete the dialogue with the relevant questions:
S.: The capital of
S.: I don’t know exactly, it seems to be about 55 mln people or even more.
S.: On the river
S.: No, the river
S.: Oh, no, it hasn’t. It has a gently sloping surface.
S.: It’s divided into counties.
S.: Oxford and Cambridge are.