YEAR OF STUDY II
(G) Grammar: Gerunds, Infinitives, Participles
(SR) Supplementary reading: Jobs in computing
Computers in daily life
How to write an effective CV
(L) Listening A job interview
(S) Speaking: My future profession.
(G) Grammar (block I):
Types of Gerunds
Functions of Gerunds
Choose the correct variant. Keep in mind that need, require, want and be worth are combined with Gerund in Active to express the passive meaning!
Example: The shoes need/want/require repairing.
Взуття потрібно відремонтувати.
The play is worth seeing.
П’єсу варто подивитися.
1. The clothes require (mending/ being mended).
2. The room needs (being painted/painting).
3. The batteries in the radio need (being changed/changing).
4. It is a difficult problem. It needs (thinking/being thought) about very carefully.
5. His name is not worth (mentioning/being mentioned).
6. The magazine is worth (being subscribed/subscribing to).
7. The event is worth (being commented/commenting on).
8. Mr. Brook’s theories are worth (listening to/being listened to).
9. I don’t think this newspaper is worth (reading/having been read).
10. Olga got used to
(driving/being driven) a car in
11. James objected to
12. The manager approved of the problem (being discussed/discussing) in detail.
13. He denies (seeing/having seen) the document before.
14. Jean often
mentions (being known/knowing) Mr.
15. Mrs. Blank apologized for (being caused/having caused) so much trouble.
16. Everybody congratulated Prof. Anderson on (having carried out/having been carried out) the experiment successfully.
Read the passage below, then look at the table above. Find the gerunds and decide whether they function as the subject, the subject complement, the object of a verb, or the object of a preposition:
Complete the sentences by using an appropriate gerund from those in the box:
1. Graphic artists like _____ colour and depth to their drawings and designs.
2. A 32-bit painting program has a complete palette of tools for _____ images from scratch.
3. The speed of a microprocessor is important in _____ information.
4. Before _____ a document, the user should decide on the layout.
5. You can open the colour palette by _____ on the corresponding pop-up icon.
6. _____ refers to the techniques used to make realistic images.
Translate the following sentences paying attention to Gerund:
1. Reading technical literature in English is very important for an engineer.
2. Printing is the final stage in creating a document.
3. Ink-jet printers operate by projecting small ink droplets onto paper to produce images.
4. It is not worth buying this monitor.
5. I remember attending his lectures on programming.
6. After graduating from the University he will be a system engineer.
7. He began testing the program immediately.
8. The organizers of the conference were informed of his having refused to take part in it.
9. I remember his having been interested in computers in his childhood.
10. It goes without saying that they are still expensive for students.
11. Mechanical engineers use sophisticated programs for applications in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing.
12. Basically, computer graphics help users to understand complex information quickly by presenting it in a clear visual form.
13. Debugging а program is а hard job.
14. Оnе of the benefits of buying а system is that it has detailed documentation with it.
15. Ву performing different kinds of operations on а computer, people solve а lot of different problems.
16. Programming is the process of preparing, testing, correcting instructions for а computer.
17. Logical operations consist in comparing, selecting, sorting, matching & determining.
18. After performing calculations а computer displays some result.
19. (His) Ivan's being а brilliant programmer is а well known fact.
20. We saw the operator having made the machine operate.
Combinations with Gerunds
Variants of Translation Gerund into Ukrainian
Go + Gerund
Choose the correct variant, translate the sentences into Ukrainian:
1. Richard is expecting (us/our) to go to class tomorrow.
2. You shouldn’t rely on (him/his) calling you in the morning.
3. They don’t approve of (us/our) leaving early.
4. George asked (me/my) to call him last night.
5. We understand (him/his) having to leave early.
6. We are expecting (Henry/Henry’s) to call us.
7. They are looking forward to (us/our) visiting them.
8. Susan regrets (John/John’s) being in trouble.
9. We understand (you/your) not being able to stay longer.
10. We object to (their/them) signing the contract now.
Translation of Gerunds / Participles / Infinitives
Translate the sentences paying attention to the Infinitive Constructions:
1. Guessing a password or cracking the program that controls the access to the system is considered to be breaking through a security measure and entering a computer system.
2. Computer software engineers are projected to be one of the fastest growing occupations over 2004-2014 period.
3. Prices for good CRT monitor are said to have dropped considerably by the end of the month.
4. We know the optical mouse to be a far cry from the conventional ball-roller assembly of the first mechanical mice.
5. I saw him using this device in the lab.
6. We assume notebook sales to be starting to catch up with those of desktop computers.
7. I thought him to be good at writing programs.
8. Our engineers want the computer problems to be solved by computers.
9. We asked the shop-assistant to show us the computer operate.
10. We know Pascal to be the first inventor of the mechanical computer.
Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to ing- forms and state their functions:
1. Science requires experimenting.
2. These methods were tried without obtaining the necessary results.
3. The positive results were being obtained last year.
4. The monument of what century are they restoring?
5. This monument needs restoring.
6. Think before saying!
7. I don’t understand what he is talking about.
8. Speaking foreign languages is very important for every educated person nowadays.
9. The idea of creating this lab belongs to our chief.
10. How long has he been working on his report?
11. When choosing a printer take into considerations all the specifications.
12. I noticed a very nice monitor standing far from the one we were recommended.
13. Measuring resistance is necessary in many experiments.
14. Go on demonstrating your slides.
15. In solving problems it is necessary to distinguish between fact and hypothesis.
16. Avoid mixing these two substances.
17. Heating copper wire from 0 to 100° increases its resistance about 40 %.
18. It’s no use searching for another approach.
19. Calcium and sodium are alike in being very soft.
20. Upon being heated to a high temperature many metallic compounds are decomposed.
22. His having given up the job disappointed us.
23. The president’s refusing to take steps aroused everybody’s indignation.
24. Your threatening them made us angry.
25. The papers not commenting on the event was most surprising.
26. The two countries exchanging delegations is most important for establishing friendly relations between them.
27. His knowing English will help him in his work.
28. Howard was surprised at his chief not having asked him anything.
29. Helen was disappointed at Peter not having been invited.
30. They insisted on
our flying to
31. There is no possibility of our seeing him this week.
Translate the sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to ing-forms:
1. He kept moving his start bar around the sides of the screen, shifting the windows and the icons around.
2. There are two features for printing.
3. I had a hard time reading this letter.
4. The police are catching more and more crimes with every coming year.
5. Before buying a game, you must consider “system requirements”.
6. The police informed that a man had been found dead after playing computer games for 86 hours non-stop.
7. The world of gaming on-line is ever changing.
8. If you are going to take gaming seriously, you have to spend time doing it.
9. Children begin using computers regularly for education and entertainment purposes by the time they are ten.
10. Computers were once viewed as isolating people from people.
11. Software engineers must possess strong programming skills, but are more concerned with developing algorithms and analyzing and solving programming problems than with actually writing code.
12. The workers use different programming languages, depending on the purpose of the program.
13. Hard disk space at this point, probably isn’t worth caring too much about.
14. Laptops usually share memory between CPU and GPU, saving a lot of space and helping to reduce power consumption.
Usage of Verbals
1 = verb + a gerund OR a noun + an infinitive
3 = verb + a gerund OR an infinitive with a difference in meaning
4 = verb + a gerund OR an infinitive with little difference in meaning
Choose the correct form of the verbal.
Translate the sentences and state the function of the verbals:
1. When applied/ applying mathematical methods to the solving technical problems engineers are often interested in order to obtain/ obtaining finite numerical results.
2. The students get/ getting their practical train/ training when they are work/ working at various plants.
3. I’d like to show/ showing you the work of this device.
4. He enjoyed to work/ working with this group.
5. You must avoid to use/ using an optical mouse on a reflective surface.
6. I saw him to cross/ crossing the street.
Translate the sentences into English using the expressions: to be good at, to be sorry for, to be worth, to go on, to give up, to be of great importance, it goes without saying:
1. Зрозуміло, що після закінчення університету він працюватиме програмістом.
2. Він оголосив, що відмовився від паління.
3. Мене запитали, кому належить ідея створення космічних ракет.
4. Їм повідомили, що не варто використовувати цей прилад для тестування.
5. Він пішов, не завершивши своєї роботи.
6. Будь-хто знає, що вивчення іноземних мов має велике значення для кожної освіченої людини.
7. Вона спитала, чи потребують такі принтери реклами.
8. Існує декілька шляхів вирішення такої проблеми.
9. Продовжуй читати!
10.Він добре знається на розв’язанні подібних питань.
11.Він вибачився за запізнення.
12.Мене запитали, чи я працював до вступу до університету.
Translation of the –ing Forms/Participles
*дієслова: must, need (not), can, may, might, ought to, should, would, used to, dare
**усі форми Continuous Tense
***усі форми Perfect Tense
****усі форми Passive Voice
Translate the following sentences into English:
1. Складання програми вимагає великої уваги програміста.
2. Провівши багато дослідів, вчені змогли запустити цю систему.
3. Пам'ять використовується для збереження різноманітної інформації.
4. Він добре ремонтує комп’ютери.
5. Дякую за запрошення на конференцію.
6. Блок вводу складається з пристроїв, які використовують різні значення.
7. Логічні операції, які виконуються комп’ютером – це порівняння, вибірка, узгодження та визначення.
8. Обговорюючи переваги даного пристрою, професор надав студентам усі необхідні пояснення.
9. Які переваги використання мов програмування?
10. Хто цей чоловік, який сидить в комісії?
11. Він міг читати технічну літературу, не користуючись словником.
12. Використовуючи Інтернет, він підготував цікаву доповідь про історію комп’ютерів.
13. Які компанії, що виготовляють процесори, ви знаєте?
14. Після закінчення університету він працює програмістом.
15. Коли подорожуєш, варто взяти портативний комп’ютер.
16. Оптична миша не потребує чищення, оскільки вона не містить рухомих деталей.
17. Вона добре перекладає тексти, користуючись електронним словником.
18. Закінчивши університет, він вирішив продовжити своє навчання в аспірантурі. (take a post-graduate course)
The fastest growing occupation in the nearest future
The great impact of computers and information technology on our everyday life has generated a need to design and develop new computer software systems and to incorporate new technologies into a rapidly growing range of applications.
Computer software engineers are projected to be one of the fastest growing occupations in the next 10 years.
In programming or coding, software engineers instruct a computer, step by step, how to perform a function. They also solve technical problems that arise, but they are more concerned with developing algorithms and analyzing and solving programming problems than with actually writing code. They use different programming languages, depending on the purpose of the program.
Employment of computer software engineers is expectable to increase much faster than average for all occupations. Demand for computer software engineers will increase as computer networking continues to grow. For example, the expanding integration of Internet technologies and the explosive growth in electronics have resulted in rising demand for the specialists who can develop Internet, Intranet and World Wide Web applications.
Most employers prefer to hire persons having at least a bachelor’s degree and broad knowledge of computer systems and technologies. Very good opportunities are expected for college graduates with practical work experience.
Persons interested in jobs as computer software engineers must have strong problem-solving abilities and analytical skills. They also must be able to communicate effectively with team members and the customers they meet. A core team may comprise engineering, marketing, manufacturing and designing people, who should work together until the product is released.
New growth areas will continue to arise from rapidly evolving technologies. Also, information security concerns have given rise to new software needs. So, the expansion of this technology in the next 10 years will lead to an increased need for computer engineers to design and develop the software and systems to run these new applications and integrate them into older systems.
Read the text, translate it and choose the proper variant:
programming languages BASIC, Pascal,
2. BASIC was developed/ developing in 1965 and is one of the earliest programming/ programmed languages. BASIC was originally created as an interactive programming language for time sharing/ shared on large mainframes. It is widely used on all sizes of computers and has become extremely popular on microcomputers/ minicomputers.
3. PASCAL is a general/ special purpose high-level
programming language. It is named after the famous French/ English mathematician Blaze Pascal, who in 1642 designed
and built the first mechanical calculator/
computer. Pascal was proposed and defined in 1971, and gained/ has gained popularity in
universities and colleges of Europe and the
5. C is a compiler/ compiling language. Some operating/ operated systems are written in C.
(SR) Supplementary reading (block I)
a) Look carefully at the job advertisements and discuss with another student what personal qualities and professional abilities you would need for each job. Tick () the most important qualities in the list. Then add some more of your own:
willingness to take on responsibility
ability to lead a team
patience and tenacity
ability to draw well
being good with figures
b) Would you like to apply for one of these jobs? Why?
Study the personal profile of Charles Graham. Which is the most suitable job for him?
· 28 years old. Married.
· Education: 3 A-levels. In-depth knowledge of Apple Macintosh equipment.
· Course in graphic design and page-layout applications from Highland Art School.
· Proficient in Adobe PageMaker.
· Diploma in word processing. Wide experience in MS Word.
· Present job: Computer operator for PromoPrint, a company specializing in publishing catalogues and promotional material.
a) Listen to part of Chris Scott's interview with Sarah Brown and complete his notes:
b) Listen again and check your answers. Then compare your answers with a partner.
а) Listen to the conversation about the job interview and guess the meaning of the following expressions:the worst experience in my life
· for some reason
· put on the résumé
· a total lie
· look well-rounded
· test me on it
· I felt so nauseous.
б) Listen again and check your notes consulting the dictionary.
(SR) Supplementary reading (block II)
How to write an effective CV
Jon Larsson is thinking of a career move. He has read the job ads in the classified section of his newspaper and has started updating his CV in preparation for the application process.
Read Jon’s biography from his personal webpage and answer the questions that follow:
Jon is happy with his current job.…………………………………..…...….(T/ F)
He has worked in computers for over 10 years..…………………….……...(T/ F)
He made a significant difference to the profits of SoftFocus and Starsign...(T/ F)
Jon is changing jobs for financial security...……………………….……….(T/ F)
He wants to start a new job as soon as possible...…………………….…….(T/ F)
Read this article from a business magazine about how to write an effective CV, and then read Jon’s CV.