YEAR OF STUDY II
(G) Grammar: Infinitive Constructions:
Subjective Infinitive Construction
Objective Infinitive Construction
(L) Listening Steps in producing a program
(S) Speaking: Famous people of
(G) Grammar (block I):
Translation of Subjective Infinitive Construction (Complex Subject)
Translate the sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to Subjective Infinitive Constructions:
1. Machine code is known to be the only language computers can understand directly.
2. This lecture was said to be very interesting.
3. The cybercafé is believed to be opened till the midnight.
4. He proved to be a good programmer.
5. These two scientists happened to meet at the conference.
6. She seems to know some programming languages.
7. Basic is known to be a low-level language.
8. These languages are considered to be quite complex and restricted to particular machines.
9. The delegation is reported to have come on Monday.
10. This experiment was said to have been discussed at the seminar.
11. She seems to be waiting for you.
12. His English appears to be improving gradually.
13. This method was thought to be forgotten.
14. He was seen to work at the lab last Sunday.
Translate into English:
1. Виявилося, що він – хороший спеціаліст.
2. Відомо, що вона знає декілька мов програмування.
3. Вінера вважають батьком кібернетики.
4. Колись вважалося, що комп’ютери займають цілу кімнату.
5. Здається він вже купив новий комп’ютер.
6. Виявилося, що це питання має велике значення.
7. Повідомили, що делегація прибуде через тиждень.
8. Думають, що він пише програми.
9. Здається, цих двоє вчених працюють над однією й тією ж проблемою.
10. Кажуть, що математика – одна з найдавніших наук.
11. Виявляється, вони навчались в одній школі.
12. Кого вважають найбагатшою людиною в світі?
13. Здається, на Вас чекають.
14. Не може бути, щоб він самостійно написав таку складну програму!
15. Схоже на те, що ми закінчимо переклад до кінця заняття.
16. Сподівалися, що цей експеримент буде вдалим.
Verbs used as Predicates
Variants of Substituting Subjective Infinitive Constructions
Substitute the following sentences with the parallel sentences and translate them into Ukrainian:
1. The book is said to be popular.
2. The article is likely to appear in the next issue.
3. They all appear to agree as to the importance of the problem.
4. Her advice proved to be helpful.
5. He is unlikely to change his opinion.
6. Taras Shevchenko is considered to be the greatest poet in the world poetry.
7. The government was expected to loose the election.
8. He seems to be looking for something.
9. The language of the novel turned out to be quite easy.
10. The discussion seemed to be coming to an end.
11. The weather is likely to change.
12. She happened to be there.
Translation of Objective Infinitive Construction (Complex Object)
Verbs used as Predicates
Translate into Ukrainian:
1. He wanted us to finish this experiment.
2. I expect you to revise all the rules.
3. I suppose him to be working now.
4. The engineer expected the work to be done in time.
5. We know him to have graduated from our University 3 years ago.
6. We know the cybernetics to be an important branch of modern technology.
7. They thought him to have taken part in their experiments.
8. Did you want the program to be updated?
9. She felt somebody look at her.
10. We heard him speak French fluently.
11. Nobody noticed her leave the lecture.
12. You can’t make me believe all this is true.
13. We saw him come into the computing centre.
14. I watched my friend choose a laptop.
Translate into English:
1. Він хотів, щоб прилад перевірили ще раз.
2. Ми не знали, що він пише програми.
3. Професор змусив студентів продовжувати цей дослід.
4. Вам подобається спостерігати, як хтось працює в Photoshop?
5. Ніхто не помітив, як він пішов.
6. Ви коли-небудь чули, як вона розповідає про видатних людей України?
7. Хто з вас чув, як задзвенів дзвінок?
8. Ти бачив, як він інсталював операційну систему?
9. Ми сподіваємося, що програма буде написана вчасно.
10. Ви хочете, щоб я розповів про мови програмування?
11. Ніхто не змусить мене повірити в це.
12. Кожен знає, що він вивчає ще одну іноземну мову.
(G) Grammar (block II):
Make sentences as in the example.
not easy/write instructions in Pascal - It is not easy to write instructions in Pascal.
1 advisable/test the program under different conditions
2 expensive/set up a data-processing area
3 unusual for a program/work correctly the first time it is tested
4 difficult for students/learn FORTRAN
5 important/consider the capabilities of the programming language
6 quite easy/write instructions in BASIC
Read the information in the box above and then look again at the reading passage in Ex. 1R. Underline the infinitive constructions after modal verbs:
Unfortunately, computers cannot understand ordinary spoken English ...
Look at these pairs of examples and decide where there is an 'important' change in meaning:
1 a I remember shutting down the computer before I left the room.
b Please remember to buy the new program.
2 a They stopped to look at the flowchart.
b They stopped looking at the flowchart.
3 a I like studying C language.
b I like to study C language in the evenings.
4 a It has started to rain.
b It has started raining.
5 a He needs to work harder.
b This hard disk needs repairing.
Read the text and find answers to these questions:
1. Do computers understand human languages?
2. What are the differences between low-level and high-level languages?
3. What is an assembler?
4. What is the function of compilers?
5. What do you understand by the terms source program and object program?
6. In the future, could computers be programmed in Spanish, French or Japanese?
Unfortunately, computers cannot understand ordinary spoken English or any other natural language. The only language they can understand directly is known to be called machine code. This consists of the 1s and 0s (binary codes) that are processed by the CPU.
Machine code as a means of communication is considered to be very difficult to write. For this reason, we use symbolic languages that are easier to understand. Then, by using a special program, these languages can be translated into machine code. For example, assembly languages are said to use abbreviations such as ADD, SUB, MUL, DIV to represent instructions. These mnemonic codes are like labels easily associated with the items to which they refer.
Basic languages, where the program is similar to the machine code version, are known to be low-level languages. In these languages, each instruction is equivalent to a single machine code instruction, and the program is converted into machine code by a special program called an assembler. These languages are still quite complex and restricted to particular machines.
To make the programs easier to write and to overcome the problem of intercommunication between different types of machines, higher-level languages were designed such as C++, Java, or php. These are all problem-oriented rather than machine-oriented. Programs written in one of these languages are known to be source programs. They are converted into a lower-level language by means of a compiler (generating the object program).
On compilation, each statement in a high-level language is generally translated into many machine code instructions.
People communicate instructions to the computer in symbolic languages and the easier this communication can be made, the wider the application of computers will be. Scientists are already working on Artificial Intelligence and the next generation of computers may be able to understand human languages.
Translate the following expressions:
Decide if the following words collocate with code or language. Choose the correct answer:
Complete the definitions from an online dictionary by typing in terms from Exercise 3R. Then choose the correct verb forms:
1. _________: general term for a formal language used (to write/for to write/writing) instructions that can (to be/be/being)translated into machine language and then executed by a computer.
2. _________: a set of instructions that a computer can (to understand/understand/understanding) directly; it is expressed in binary code and is very difficult (to write/write/writing).
3. _________: a type of low-level language that uses abbreviations such as ADD, SUB, MUL and DIV (to represent/represent/representing) instructions; then translated into machine code using an assembler.
4. _________: a language such as an assembly language, which does not (to need/need/needing) a compiler or interpreter.
5. _________: developed (to make/make/making) programs easier; (to write/write/writing) for example, FORTRAN, BASIC, C and Java.
6. _________: the original work of a programmer, which must (to be/be/is) translated by a compiler.
7. _________: instructions that a compiler (to generate/generates/generating) from source code written in a higher-level language, for example C++.
8. _________: a language for (to create/create/creating) web documents.
Complete these steps in the writing of a program by typing in the words from the box:
1. Understand the _________ and plan a solution.
2. Make a _________, which shows the steps of the program.
3. Write _________ in a programming language.
4. _________ the program – that is, turn it into machine code.
5. Test for errors and _________ the program.
6. Prepare _________, for example the instruction manual.
Do you know…
Computers at work or in education
Computer Based Training (CBT) offers a low cost solution to training needs where you need to train a large amount of people on a single subject. These programs are normally supplied on CD-ROM and combine text, graphics and sound. Packages range from general encyclopedias right through to learning a foreign language.
Many car factories are almost completely automated and the cars are assembled by computer-controlled robots. This automation is becoming increasingly common throughout industry.
Many products are designed using CAD (Computer Aided Design) programs to produce exact specifications and detailed drawings on the computer before producing models of new products.
Computers are ideally suited to a wide range of business activities. In many cases, the use of computers has results in companies shedding staff and becoming more efficient. The flip slide is that many businesses such as banks while more efficient are also becoming more impersonal.
Stock control is ideal for automation and in many companies, it is now completely computerized. The stock control system keeps track of the number of items in stock and can automatically order replacement items when required.
In most large organizations, the accounts are maintained by a computerized system. Due to the repetitive nature of accounts, a computer system is ideally suited to this task and accuracy is guaranteed.
In many companies, the traditional fax machine has been completely replaced by the ability to send and receive faxes directly from a desktop computer. This is far more efficient as you do not have to waste time walking to and from the fax machine. In addition, the quality of the faxes sent and received is much higher. In a similar manner, the traditional answering machine has largely been replaced by voice mail. Using this system, the message can be stored on your own computer and played back when you return to your office.
The phrase Email refers to Electronic Mail, which operates in the same way as the traditional mail system but has the advantage that mail is sent and received instantaneously (on a world wide basis). Most Email packages are very easy to learn and used properly can greatly enhance productivity.
A word processing program (such as Microsoft Word) allows you to easily produce letter, memos, etc. You can easily mail merge a list of names and addresses to produce mass mailers, individually addressed to customers or subscribers.
A spreadsheet program (such as Microsoft Excel) allows you to work out a company’s income, expenditure and then calculate the balance. It allows you to make 'what if' type projections of how the company will fair in the future and to forecast how changes in prices will affect profits.
A database program (such as Microsoft Access) allows you to compile information and then to search this information to extract just the information you require. For instance, if you have a database of all the equipment housed within an office you can very simply produce a report listing only the equipment above a certain value.
A presentation program (such as Microsoft PowerPoint) allows you to produce professional looking presentations, which can be printed out directly onto slides for use with an overhead projector. Alternatively, you can display your presentations directly on a computer screen.
A graphics program (such as Corel Graphics) is used to produce adverts, posters and promotional material by organizations.
Translation programs allow you to electronically convert text from one language to another. While these programs are far from perfect, their use is becoming increasing common and they are getting better as each new version comes out.
In the past, many repetitive jobs were performed by low skilled, poorly paid workers. Now is it more common to use computers instead.
The phone system is now largely automatic, while in former times all calls were made through an operator. Many other examples exist. How many can you think of?
A computer is ideally suited to performing mathematical calculations. Before computers were widely available accountants used to work on manual, paper-based spreadsheets. Within a spreadsheet, a common task would be adding up a column of figures, and then taking the total, which is added to other columns of figures. If you change one number within a column that is being summed there can be a knock-on effect on many other calculations within the spreadsheet. Re-calculating a spreadsheet could take hours (or days). On a computer, this re-calculation can take seconds!
Monitoring polluted or radioactive environments is suited to computer-based robots, where the use of a human would expose that person to unacceptable risks.
Serious space exploration is almost exclusively carried out by unmanned, computer-controlled machines. A recent exploration of Mars involved a computerized ‘car’, which had to make decisions on it's own. It could not be fully remotely controlled from earth, as the time taken for the signal to reach Mars is just too long.
Where people might be more appropriate than computers:
When you are unwell and visit your doctor, it is often a person that you want to talk to, as there might well be other factors affecting your health (maybe personal problems) that you would not feel happy typing into a computer, but would feel comfortable describing to your local doctor, who you may well have known for years! In most of the caring professions, the same is true, whether it be doctors, nurses or social workers. The human touch is important.
Despite the uptake of e-commerce, selling on the Net, banking on the Net and so on, there are many people (myself included) who still like to have the option of a real person that you can talk to, be it the local bank manager or a real person on the end of a telephone sales line! Does anyone really like ringing a large organization and being greeted with a range of buttons to press, in order to communicate with a computerized telephone system. Even ordering cinema tickets can now involve a lengthy phone call, listening to a synthetic voice describing many films you do not want to see, and pressing many buttons!
For many years, science fiction has portrayed images of a thinking, sentient android (Lieutenant Data from Star Trek for instance). In reality this is a long way from present capabilities and when it comes to anything requiring creative thought, a human wins every time. Computers in their present form would gain little from studying philosophy for instance. They can memorize the facts, but cannot make the creative leaps that humans can. On a more mundane level, when it comes to even a simple task such as cleaning your home, a human can deal with mess, clutter and items (such as chairs) that have changed their position recently. Even this simple task is beyond a small computer.
Computers are very bad at recognizing and interpreting shapes. They can take photographs and record images on video, but they have no understanding of the meaning of shapes, and will be easily confused where presented with two overlapping shapes. The human process of pattern recognition, as recent research had demonstrated, is vastly more complicated than we used to think. For this reason it is humans, not computers that will examine tissue smears for signs of abnormality within hospitals.
In time things may change, it was not very long ago that a computer was incapable of beating a chess grand master!
In pairs, try to think of an answer for the question: What is programming?
Look at the definition in the Glossary. Is it similar to yours?
Complete the following definitions with the words and phrases in the box:
The step-by-step specification of how to reach the solution to ................ .
A diagram representing the logical sequence between ....................... .
The translation of the logical steps into a programming ..................... .
4) machine code
The basic instructions understood by computers. The processor operates on codes which consist of ............................................................. .
The techniques of detecting, diagnosing and correcting errors (or 'bugs') which .
(G) Grammar (block III):
Look at the groups of words and decide what part of speech each word is. Then complete the sentences with the correct word:
1. Programs written in a high-level language require , or translation into machine code.
2. A ______ generates several low-level instructions for each source language statement.
3. Programmers usually ________ their programs to create an object program and diagnose possible errors.
1. Most computer __________ make a plan of the program before they write it. This plan is called a flowchart.
2. A computer _________ is a set of instructions that tells the computer what to do.
3. Converting an algorithm into a sequence of instructions in a programming language is called _____________.
1. New programs need __________ to make them work properly.
2. Any error or malfunction of a computer program is known as a .
3. The best compilers usually include an integrated which detects syntax errors.
In the word debug the prefix de- is used. This prefix means 'to reverse an action'. Here are a few more examples:
а) Listen to Lucy Boyd, a software developer, explaining how a program is produced. Number these steps in the order you hear them.
□ Provide documentation of the program.
□ Understand the problem and plan the solution.
□ Test and correct the program.
□ Make a flowchart of the program.
□ Write the instructions in coded form and compile the program.
б) Listen again and take notes. Use your notes to explain what each step means.
Read and translate the following text and get ready to speak on 5 more oustanding names in Ukrainian history, culture and science.
Famous people of
In the history of humanity there have always been people whose actions and ideas produced a great impact on the lives of other people. That’s why they are called outstanding.
Ukrainian literature contains a lot of glorious names. The names of Taras Shevchenko, Lessya Ukrainka, Ivan Franko, Marko Vovchok and Grygoriy Skovoroda won universal recognition. There’s hardly a country in the world which doesn’t have Taras Shevchenko’s poems translated into its language. Gentle melodies and deep emotions of Lessya Ukrainka’s verses are also dear to poetry-lovers throughout the world. But the names of modern Ukrainian writers are not so well-known as they should be. Such names as Lina Kostenko, Oles Gonchar, Vasyl Symonenko, Vasyl Stus and others were forgotten.
Vasyl Stus in one of the outstanding Ukrainian poets of the twentieth century one of the courageous “sixties”. Vasyl Stus prison poetry explores the themes of life and death, fate and destiny, individual choice and responsibility.
Ukrainians are known as a musical people with a lot of folk songs and talented performers. The Ukrainian nation composer school is connected with the name of Mykola Lysenko. M. Lysenko’s operas “Taras Bulba”, “Natalka Poltavka”, “Eneida” are still staged at the world’s opera-houses. The Ukrainian fine art is represented by the names of Kostandi, Murashko, Borovikovskyi, Pymonenko.
A lot of brilliant sportsmen honored their motherland, among them –Volodymyr and Vitaliy Klychko, Andriy Shevchenko, Yana Klochkova, Vyacheslav Uzelkov.
Volodymyr Vernandsky became the first Ukrainian Academician in
Evhen Paton was an outstanding constructor and a scientist. In 1896-1929 he constructed 35 bridges, among them the main bridge across the Dnipro in Kyiv. In 1929 Paton organized the laboratory of electric welding, which became an institute in 1934.
Great contribution to the world’s historical science was made by such prominent Ukrainian historians as Mykola Hrushevskyi, Mykhailo Dragomanov, Dmytro Yavornitskyi, Mykola Kostomarov.
The Ukrainian science and culture have always developed the best human traditions of the mankind.