Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3


Unit 4

Unit 5

Unit 6

Unit 7

Словник комп'ютерних термінів

Граматичні таблиці

Список літератури



Unit 2


(G) Grammar:                                 Infinitive & its Functions

(R) Reading:                                    Channels of Communication

(L) Listening                                    Interview about cybercafé

Cybercafé: benefits and dangers for children

(S) Speaking:                                   History, culture and traditions of Ukraine

Mini-project: plan your own cybercafé!

(SR) Supplementary reading:           Internet 2 - The next step

Security and privacy on the Internet

Computer Viruses


(G) Grammar (block I):






Infinitive (to V0)



to ask


to be asked



to have asked


to have been asked



to be asking

Perfect Continuous


to have been asking


Exercise 1G.

Translate the following sentences and state the forms and functions of the Infinitive (consult the table below):

1.       The input unit to be described here is a new device.

2.       To know English well you must work very hard.

3.       The experiments to be carried out are very important.

4.       To add and to subtract means to perform mathematical operations.

5.       The students came to be instructed by the professor.

6.       He (is/was) glad to have helped her.

7.       She was glad to have been helped.

8.       Information to be computed is usually stored in registers.

9.       He was happy to have been working for so many years with this professor.

10.  The programmer has to compile this program to give the exact commands to the computer.






to V0






Стоїть на початку речення, узгоджується з дієсловом-присудком

To answer the questions was rather difficult

Відповідати на ці питання було досить складно


Стоїть після дієслова-присудка

I asked him to wait for me — Я попросив його зачекати на мене

– ння


Part of the Predicate

а) модального [після to have, to be]

б) складеного

They have to do it — Вони повинні робити це

He is to come at five — Він повинен прийти о 5 годині

I hope to see you tonight — Сподіваюсь побачити вас ввечері

Subordinate clause with: для того щоб; щоб

Adverbial Modifier (purpose)

В реченні обовязкова наявність слова, яке є підметом

To be answered this question needed explanation

Для того, щоб відповісти на нього, це питання потрібно було пояснити

Adverbial Modifier (result)

Стоїть після частки too та її словосполучень: too much, far too або словосполучення enough + прикметник

The сhild is too small to understand it

Дитина занадто мала, щоб зрозуміти це

Subordinate clause with: який, котрий


Стоїть після іменника або його замінника, має модальне значення повинності

The problem will be discussed at the conference to be held soon

Ця проблема буде обговорюватися на конференції, яка незабаром проводитиметься (повинна проводитися)


Стоїть після слів the first, the last, the next

He is the first to come —

Він приходить першим

He was the first to come

 Він прийшов першим


Exercise 2G.

Find the Infinitives, state their forms and functions. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian:

1.            The problems to be settled will be very serious.

2.            In this region there are no historical places (sightseeings) to be mentioned.

3.            This method was introduced in the plant to achieve better results.

4.            The valuable information to be collected by sputniks will help to forecast weather.

5.            They were glad to take part in our discussion.

6.            In fact, the computer takes only one-tenth of its total operating time to do the computing.

7.            Many people came to this conference to discuss the problem of global warming.

8.            The method is not good enough to be used in the future.

9.            It didn’t take much time to extend this program.

10.       The results to be received may vary considerably.

11.       He remembered to have been living in the Crimea when a child.

12.       He was too tired to be asked so many questions.

13.       She was the first to speak at the meeting.

14.       Experience has shown that government can do much to stabilize the economy.

15.       To be objective is a must in any science.

16.       As in many other cases two different attempts to deal with this problem can be found in the User’s Manual.

17.       To achieve favourable conditions, we were forced to login once again.

18.       There were few specialists to consult with.

19.       To forecast the future we must analyze the past course of events.

20.       Who will be the next to translate this sentence?

21.       To start the computer it was necessary to reboot it.

22.       Often referred to as network configuration, these settings are not allowed to change.

23.       The very first thing you must do is to ensure that the computer is switched off.

24.       The problem was too much difficult to be solved spontaneously, without being carefully considered.


She came over from Canada to live here. Вона

 приїхала з Канади, для того щоб жити тут.

There is a lot of work to do first. Є багато роботи,

 яку треба зробити перш за все.


Verbals with/ without to


(to Vo)


begin — починати


continue — продовжувати

decide — вирішувати

demand — вимагати

desire — бажати

enableдавати змогу

estimate — вважати, оцінювати

expect — вважати, чекати

fail — терпіти невдачу

find — виявляти, вважати

get — змушувати

force — змушувати

forget — забувати

hate — ненавидіти

hesitate — вагатись

hope — надіятися

intend — мати намір

know — знати

learn — учити

like — любити

love — любити

offer — пропонувати

plan — планувати

prefer — надавати перевагу

prepare — готувати

refuse — відмовляти(ся)

seek — намагатися

seem — здаватися

start — починати

suppose — припускати, вважати

think — думати, вважати

try — намагатися

want — хотіти

wish — бажати

I want things to be done well

Я хочу, щоб все було зроблено добре

(to Vo)

let — дозволяти

make — спонукати, примушувати

have — добитися, добиватися

cause — примушувати



(can, may, must, should, would, could, might)

would(‘d) better, would(‘d) rather краще, швидше

Rain made us come back

Дощ примусив нас повернутися

I had this machine work correctly at last

Врешті-решт я змусив цю машину працювати

We could have printed this article earlier

Ми могли надрукувати цю статтю раніше

(to Vo, Ving, V3/Ved)

see — бачити

hear, listen — чути

watch — стежити, спостерігати

notice — помічати

observe — спостерігати

feel — відчувати

They watched the students (writing, write) the test

Вони спостерігали, як (що) студенти пишуть тест


Exercise 3G.

Insert the Infinitives (with or without to) and translate the sentences into Ukrainian:

1.            I would like /to discuss/ discuss/ this problem without being asked /to wait/ wait/.

2.            Do you want /to read/ read/ this article now?

3.            Could you /to tell/ tell/ me about the history of you native town?

4.            You’d better /to go/ go/ to the Internet café without waiting for your turn.

5.            The teacher made the students /to do/ do/ this difficult translation.

6.            Let’s /to talk/ talk/ about different kinds of data communication systems.

7.            Let me /to think/ think/ about your proposal.

8.            Children are not allowed /to visit/ visit/ computing centers after 10 p.m.

9.            Try / to understand/ understand/ how this device functions.

10.       Are you going /to pass/ pass/ your exams next week?

11.       Will you /to be able/ be able/ /to help/ help/ us with this network configuration?

12.       It caused the pointer /to move/ move/ erratically.


Exercise 4G.

Translate into English:

1.            Їх попросили розповісти про історію рідного краю.

2.            Зараз занадто пізно, щоб іти в парк.

3.            Я хотіла б попрацювати над цією проблемою.

4.            Він був радий взяти участь у роботі цієї конференції.

5.            Давайте розглянемо функції цього приладу пізніше.

6.            Він не знав, що потрібно було робити далі.

7.            Вони приїхали, щоб познайомитися з традиціями нашого народу.

8.            Досліди, які потрібно провести, будуть надзвичайно важливими для її дослідження.

9.            Вони вивчають іноземні мови для того, щоб мати можливість читати літературу в оригіналі.

10.       Скільки часу вам потрібно, щоб завершити цей дослід?

11.       Не змушуйте мене нагадувати про вашу обіцянку ще раз.

12.       Ми задоволені, що працюємо в цій лабораторії протягом 6 років.


(R) Reading


Exercise 1R.

Try to answer these questions.

How can a PC be connected to another computer?

What data communication systems can you think of? Make a list.



Exercise 2R.

Match the data communication services on the left with the requirements on the right. Then read the passage and check your answers.


1    fax

2    electronic mail (e-mail)

3    teletext

4     local bulletin board system (BBS)

5    commercial online service

a)        To send a personal message to a friend who is at a different workstation.

b)        To send a copy of a paper document - for instance, a scientific article.

c)         To access massive databases containing all kinds of information, or to be connected with an airline reservations service.

d)        To receive shareware and public domain programs from a user group.

e)         To find out weather forecasts and sports information from the television.


Channels of communication

What are “telecommunications”?

This term refers to the transmission of information over long distances using the telephone system, radio, TV satellite or computer links. Examples are two people speaking on the phone, a sales department sending a fax to a client or someone reading the teletext pages on TV But in the modern world, telecommunications mainly means transferring information from one PC to another via modem and phone lines (or fibre-optic cables).

What can you do with a modem?

A modem is your computer's link to the external world. With a modem you can exchange e-mail and files with friends and colleagues; you can access the Web and search for information about the stock market, current affairs, entertainment, etc.; you can participate in newsgroups and live conversations; you can make bank transactions and buy things from the comfort of your home. You can also access your office from your computer at home or your laptop in a hotel room.


Your PC is a digital device (it works with 1s and 0s). However, the telephone is an analogue device, designed to transmit the sounds of the human voice. That's why we need a modem a bridge between digital and analogue signals. The word “modem” is an acronym for MOdulator / DEModulator. When a modem modulates, it sends rapid on/off pulses. The computer on the other end translates (demodulates) those signals into intelligible text or graphics. Modem transmission speeds are measured in kilobits per second. The conventional modem transmits data at 56 kbps: a cable modem offers speeds of up to 2 Mbps; and an ADSL modem supports data rates of 1.5 to 9 Mbps.

Today a lot of companies find it more efficient to have some employees doing their work at home. Using a modem, they transfer their work into the office where it is printed and distributed. The list of applications is endless.

What do you need to telecommunicate?

You just need a PC (or a terminal), a modem connected to the computer and the telephone line, and communication software. Once you have installed and configured your modem, you can communicate with people through bulletin boards and online services.

Local bulletin boards

Bulletin board systems (BBS) are frequently free because they are run by enthusiasts and sponsored by user groups or small businesses. The person who administers the BBS is called sysop (system operator). You can use a BBS to download artwork, games and programs, or you can participate in ongoing discussions. You can also upload (send) programs, but make sure they are shareware or public domain programs.

Online service providers

To gain access to the Net you must first open an account with a service provider.

Internet service providers give you a software package, username, password and access phone number. You can then log on to the Internet and browse the web, download files from FTP sites, and send and receive e-mail. Most ISPs charge a flat monthly or annual fee that gives you unlimited access.

Commercial online services e.g. America Online, CompuServe and the Microsoft Network. They differ from dedicated ISPs in two ways: (1) they use a smooth, easy-to-use interface, and (2) they have extra services for 60 members only (but they charge higher prices). For example, they offer airline reservations, professional forums, etc.

A fax machine sends and receives copies of original documents via a phone line.

Teletext on ITV and Channel Four is an information service in Britain which broadcasts a database alongside the TV signal. It provides constantly updated and real time information


Exercise 3R.

Complete the sentences by using a term from the list. Then write the words in the crossword.


modem   network   online   download   newsgroups   services   account   telephone




















































































1.  When you are connected to the Internet you are described as being __________.

2.  To communicate via the Internet you need a PC, a modem and a ___________ line.

3.  To have access to the Internet you must first open an __________ with an Internet service provider.

4. You need a _____________ to convert computer data into a form that can be transmitted over the phone lines.

5. The public discussion areas on the Internet are called __________.

6. You can use a BBS to _________ clip-art, games and shareware to your PC.

7. CompuServe and America Online offer exclusive __________ to their customers.

8. The Internet is a global __________ of computer networks.


Exercise 4R.

Match and link the pairs of expressions that have the same meaning:


file of structured data       BBS       facsimile machine       FTP    sysop         kilobits per second    system operator       modem      Internet relay chat                phone network   fax     database    bulletin board system     IRC          modulator/demodulator       kbps         file transfer protocol        telephone wires


(G) Grammar (block II):




Exercise 1G.

a)            In pairs, look at the words below and decide:

  what part of speech each word is

  where the stress falls on each item.


b)           If you are not sure, look them up in a dictionary.

tele- means “at/over a distance”

1.    telegram

2.     telephoto

3.     televise

4.     television

5.     teletype

6.     teletext

7.     telegraph

8.     telegrapher

9.     telegraphic

10.  telegraphically

11. telepathy

12.                       telepathic

13.  telescope

14.  telescopic

15.                       telephonist

Exercise 2G.

Now write down some words formed by adding these prefixes.

1     auto- (means self)

2     trans- (means “across from one place to another”)

3     inter- (means between, among)


(L) Listening (block I):

Task (Recording 2)       icon


Exercise 1L.

a)                Look at the photo below and try to answer these questions.

1.     What is a cybercafé?

2.     What services would you expect when entering a cybercafé?

b)    Listen to this interview with Daniel Sturdy, the manager of an Internet café in London. Then say whether these sentences are true (T) or false (F).


1.  A cybercafé is a cafe where you can have access to the Internet and related services.

2. You can talk to people over the Internet as if you were speaking on the phone.

3. They don't help people who have problems while using the Internet.

4. A private e-mail account costs £10 a month.

5. At the moment they have got many international users.

6. You have to pay long-distance rates on the Internet.

7. In the café area you can sit, drink coffee and chat to people.

8. Most of the computers are in an upstairs area.

9.     Choose the correct word to complete the list of things that you can do at a typical cybercafé:

10.           (access/get into/enter) the Internet

11.           (multiple/multiplayer/many-player) gaming

12.           (look for/find/browse) the Web

13.           (drink/take/make) coffee

14.           (web/online/internet) telephony

15.           chat (at/to/-) people



(S) Speaking


Exercise 1S.

Read and translate the texts and get ready to speak on them:


History of Ukraine.

The term “Ukraine” first appeared in the chronicles of ancient Slavs in the 12th century as a geographical name for southern lands of the ancient Kyiv Rus’. The State of Kyiv Rus was set up in the 9th century. It was a powerful feudal state with highly developed culture and various crafts widely known throughout Europe. During the existence of Kyiv Rus’ there were a great number of outstanding statesmen such as: Volodymyr the Great (980-1015), Yaroslav the Wise (1019-1054), Volodymyr Monomah (1113-1125).

During the reign of Volodymyr the Great the Christianity was adopted as a single religion in Rus’. During the reign of Yaroslav the Wise, Kyiv Rus reached the pike of its cultural flourishing. It was Yaroslav who adopted the first juridical norms of law: “Rus’ka Pravda”. During the reign of Volodymyr Monomah the state had the political as well as the territorial stability. He continued the work of Yaroslav on the development of culture and turned attention to education.

From the 13th century Ukraine was continuously struggling against invasions by the Tatar–Mongols, the Turks, the Crimean Tatars; Lithuanian and Polish rulers, who pursued a policy of merciless national oppression. The regeneration of Ukraine as an independent state began only with the “Cossack Epoch” and the most outstanding personality of this period was Bohdan Khmelnitsky. In 1654 a treaty of union between Ukraine and Russian tsar was signed. The hetman had the right to administer Ukraine, to possess an army and navy, collect taxes. Soon after Khmelnitsky’s death  the tsar interrupted the treaty as a “personal union” and demanded its revision whenever a new hetman was to be elected. Several hetmans tried to break away from Russia but failed (I.Vyhovsky in 1659, P.Doroshenko in 1665-1676, I.Mazepa in 1708-1709). After each such defeat the tsar reduced the Ukrainian’s treaty rights. Finally, in 1764, the office of the hetman was abolished altogether, and in 1775 Katherine II destroyed the stronghold of the Ukrainian sovereignty, the Zaporozhian Sich. She introduced serfdom in Ukraine. The Ukrainian people have never stopped struggling against tsarist economic and national oppression.

After the overthrow of the tsar in March 1917, Ukrainian political and military organizations convened an assembly in Kyiv, called the Central Rada. It proclaimed the establishment of Ukrainian People’s Republic. After the Bolshevik Revolution in November 1917, Ukraine was proclaimed an independent and sovereign state and its first president was the famous Ukrainian scientist Mikhailo Grushevsky. When the revolution won a victory, Ukraine became the socialist republic.

The Ukrainian people suffered greatly during the World War II. 4 million and a half of Ukrainian people were killed, more than 2 million were taken to Germany as slaves. Freethinking was punished.

Only on the 24th of August in 1991 the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian Republic proclaimed Ukraine an independent democratic sovereign state. The first President of Ukraine was Leonid Kravchuk. In 1994 Ukrainian people elected a new President, Leonid Kuchma. He was reelected in 1998 for the second term. 2004 was the year of new election of Ukrainian President. The election was very difficult and contradictory. Nowadays the Ukrainian President is Victor Yuschenko.


Culture and Traditions in Ukraine.

Ukraine is full of traditions, customs and holidays. Some of them are very old, some appeared not long ago.

On the 24th of August we celebrate the Independence Day. There are a lot of concerts and dances in the streets of Kyiv. This day is the greatest national holiday.

New Year Holiday is widely observed in Ukraine. The most common type of celebration is the New Year party, which usually begins at 9 o’clock and goes on till the early hours of the morning.

Christmas Day is observed on the 7th of January. This holiday is of religious origin. Most people observe the tradition of going to church and having a tasty dinner.

On the 8th of March we celebrate Women’s Day. It is a nice spring holiday when men give presents and flowers to their wives, sweethearts, girl-friends, sisters and daughters.

Another great national holiday is Easter, the holiday of celebrating Christ’s rising from the dead. It is a time of giving or receiving presents that traditionally took the form of an Easter egg.

April’s Fool’s Day named from the custom of playing practical jokes or sending on fool’s errands is on the 1st of April. People enjoy joking and laughing on this holiday.

The 9th of May is Victory Day, the holiday of victory over fascist invaders. People lay flowers to the war memorials, to the tombs of those who died in the war.

On the 7th of July our people celebrate an old heathen holiday, the Day if Ivan Kupalo. The celebration of the Day of Ivan Kupalo is rather a tradition than a holiday. On this day people gather at the banks of the river, make bonfires, etc. People say that on this day the water has a clearing power, young couples jump over the bonfires to know whether they’ll be together or not. It is very beautiful and unusual tradition of our people.

There are many other traditions in Ukraine such as: St. Andrey’s Day, St. Kateryna’s Day, St. Nikolay’s Day, etc.

Over the last few years Ukrainian people also celebrate such foreign holidays as St. Valentine’s Day and Halloween.


Exercise 2S.

Mini-project: plan your own cybercafé!

Imagine you want to open an Internet café in town. In pairs, look at the box below and make a project about a café:


Consider the following:

  the money you need to set up and run your cybercafé

  the kind of visitors you would like to have

  the location

  the services you want to offer (food, drinks, coffees, etc.)

  the type of furniture

  the things that can help you create a relaxing atmosphere (music, decoration, lighting, private areas, etc.)

  whether you want to have second-hand books, classic literature or magazines about computers and the Internet.

Make decisions about:

  the type of Internet connection: via a cable modem, an ADSL modem, etc.

  hardware equipment (Macs and PCs, printer, fax, etc.)

  software (web browser, e-mail, online chatting, games on CD-ROMs, etc.)

  how much you will charge customers for your services

  classes for users.

Now choose a name and a slogan for your cybercafé.


Exercise 3S.

Read the passage, then choose the correct variant to complete the sentences:


One of the greatest advances in modern technology has been the invention of computers. They help us, fascinate us and occasionally scare us. The latest fear concerns children and computers. Some experts claim that brothers and sisters are starting to play more with computers than with one another, and that computers are distancing children from their parents.

Walking round a toyshop you find a home computer game to satisfy any child's violent imagination. Adult computer addicts are familiar figures: pale people who sit in front of green screens hour after hour. That is their choice. But the idea of a child living in front of a flashing green screen is somehow less acceptable. Canadian child psychologist Jams-Norton explains: These are children with few friends, afraid of making conversation. They are children who are usually allowed to do what they want. They cannot concentrate for long periods of time except in front of the screen. "If the computer games they play are violent," she adds, "they become indifferent to violence faster than they would through watching violent videos."

A frightening picture starts to appear. Jams-Norton sees a good number of troubled children. They usually persuade their parents to buy them a computer by saying it "will help their education." Computers, after all, are a central part of education today. Some educationalists enthusiastically look forward to the day when every child will have a personal computer in the class room and the class teacher will be nothing but a technician. That is not particularly appealing either, although with the current lack of teachers someone may soon decide it makes good economic sense. Jams-Norton disapproves of such an attitude, it is relationships with the teacher and the other pupils that make you learn."

We may be at a sort of crossroads. It is a question of whether we use the machines wisely or stupidly in bringing up children. "The computer, says the child psychologist, is only a surface problem but the real problem is not computers. It is parents who have forgotten how to be parents, or don't have the confidence. I wish they'd start noticing and worrying about what is happening a bit sooner."


A People are worried that children's dependence on computers may result in …

1.serious learning difficulties.

2.serious problems with health.

3.families having communication problems.

4.permanent anxieties.


B Computer-dependent children …

1.concentrate on the screen for short periods only.

2.become violent or aggressive.

3.find it hard to communicate with other children.

4.stammer more often than other children.


C The idea of computer-dependent adults is acceptable because …

1.They can control their violent imaginations easily.

2.They are old enough to make their own decisions.

3.They can not stop looking at the flashing screen.

4.They don’t only use the computers for game.


D Some experts believe that in the future …

1.Every teacher will have a PC in the classroom.

2.It will be too expensive to give each schoolchild a computer.

3.Children will be educated at home using computers.

4.Most teaching will be done by computers.


E What is the real problem behind children's dependence on computers, according to the child psychologist?

1.Children's learning can be slowed down.

2.Parents do not participate in their children's education.

3.Children regard computers as toys not tools.

4.Parents do not have confidence when using computers.


(L) Listening (block II):

Task (Recording 3)                 icon


Exercise 2L.


Listen to Diana Wilson, a member of the Internet Safety Foundation. She is talking about cyberspace's dangers and benefits for children. Complete the notes in this table:



  The Internet brings benefits for(1) ____________ and entertainment.


      manipulation of children

      invasions of (2) ____________

      child (3) ____________

      violence and neo-Nazi (4) ____________


  There are websites (5)         ____________ for children.

  Internet (6) ____________programs let parents block objectionable Web sites.

  Websites should (7) ____________ their content with a label, from child-friendly to over 18-only.

But this may limit free expression.


(SR) Supplementary reading (block I):


Internet2 - The next step

Exercise 1SR.

Read the headings and the text. Then match them to the paragraphs.


·     Partners for change

·     Trials and challenges

·     A new project

·     Future plans

·     Speed, security, service


1 ________________

Internet2 is a collaborative project between universities, government agencies and industry partners in the USA. It aims to create advanced Internet applications for academic research, distance learning and education. The I2 project was developed by the University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development (UCAID) in October 1996.

2 ________________

There are three major challenges facing Internet2:

·     to establish an advanced communications infrastructure for the US research and education community

·     to develop new applications, such as digital libraries, telemedicine and virtual laboratories, allowing participants to send big packets of data and video at high speed. For example, teachers and students can view and consult during real-time medical operations, scientists can collaborate in virtual meetings etc

·     to transfer the new network capabilities to all levels of education and to the rest of the Internet.

3 ________________

The I2 project is made up of three main categories of members: universities, non-profit organizations and corporate partners, i.e. sponsors and industries interested in investing in the project.

4 ________________

Internet2 is working together with advanced networks such as the high-speed Backbone Network Service developed by MCI/Worldcom, and the Next Generation Internet, which is being built by US federal agencies. It runs on a new fibre-optic backbone called Abilene, which operates at speeds of up to 2.4 gigabits (1,024 megabits) per second. Internet2 uses Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) instead of the current IPv4. This new protocol uses the Quality of Service (QoS) technology, which allows users to send data with guaranteed delivery - on time and intact.

5 ________________

Internet 2 and its fast backbones are not available to the general public yet, and its physical structure is not intended to replace the global Internet. But the plan for the future is to integrate the new technology with the public Internet and to make it available to everyone.


Exercise 2SR.

Fill in the gaps in these sentences using the passive forms of the verbs in the box:









1.  The new national backbone __________ Abilene.

2.  The Internet2 project __________ by UCAID in October 1996.

3.  Funds and grants for research __________ by non-profit organizations like the National Science Foundation.

4.  One objective of Internet2 is to develop new technologies that can __________ in the global Internet.

5.  Huge packets of data and video __________ at high speed.

6.  In the future it’s likely that all media (TV, web content, email, etc.) __________ over Internet2.

Exercise 3SR.

Refer to the text to find the term for these definitions:

In paragraph 1

·     investigation undertaken to discover new facts

In paragraph 2

·     technology that provides high-quality information to doctors over long distances

In paragraph 4:

·     glass material that guides light impulses at high frequencies

·     high-speed data highways that connect other networks

·     1,024 megabits

·     specification that describes how computers will talk to each other on a network


Exercise 4SR.


Security and privacy on the Internet

There are a lot of benefits from an open system like the Internet, but we are also exposed to hackers who break into computer systems just for fun, as well as to steal information or propagate viruses. So how do you go about making online transactions secure?


Security on the Web

The question of security is crucial when sending confidential information such as credit to card numbers. For example, consider the process of buying a book on the Web. You have to type your credit card number into an order form which passes from computer to computer on its way to the online bookstore. If one of the intermediary computers is infiltrated by hackers, your data can be copied. It is difficult to say how often this happens, but it's technically possible.

To avoid risks, you should set all security alerts to high on your Web browser. Netscape Communicator and Internet Explorer display a lock when the Web page is secure and allow you to disable or delete “cookies”.

If you use online bank services, make sure your bank uses digital certificates. A popular security standard is SET (secure electronic transactions).


E-mail privacy

Similarly, as your e-mail message travels across the net, it is copied temporarily on many computers in between. This means it can be read by unscrupulous people who illegally enter computer systems.

The only way to protect a message is to put it in a sort of 'envelope', that is, to encode it with some form of encryption. A system designed to send e-mail privately is Pretty Good Privacy, a freeware program written by Phil Zimmerman.


Network security

Private networks connected to the Internet can be attacked by intruders who attempt to take valuable information such as Social Security numbers, bank accounts or research and business reports.

To protect crucial data, companies hire security consultants who analyse the risks and provide security solutions. The most common methods of protection are passwords for access control, encryption and decryption systems, and firewalls.


Virus protection

Viruses can enter a PC through files from disks, the Internet or bulletin board systems. If you want to protect your system, don't open e-mail attachments from strangers and take care when downloading files from the Web. (Plain text e-mail alone can't pass a virus.)

Remember also to update your anti-virus software as often as possible, since new viruses are being created all the time.


    hacker: a person who obtains unauthorized access to computer data

    cookies: small files used by Web servers to know if you have visited their site before

    certificates: files that identify users and Web servers on the net, like digital identification cards

    encryption: the process of encoding data so that unauthorized users can't read it

    decryption: the process of decoding encrypted data transmitted to you


Exercise 5SR.

Do you know…

Computer Viruses

What are computer viruses?

Viruses are small programs that hide themselves on your disks (both diskettes and your hard disk). Unless you use virus detection software the first time that you know that you have a virus is when it activates. Different viruses are activated in different ways. For instance, the famous Friday the 13th virus will activate only when it is both a Friday and the 13th of the month.

BEWARE: Viruses can destroy all your data.

How do viruses infect PCs?

Viruses hide on a disk and when you access the disk (either a diskette or another hard disk over a network) the virus program will start and infect your computer. The worst thing about a computer virus is that they can spread from one computer to another, either via use of infected floppy disk, or over a computer network.

The Internet allows you to access files from all over the world and you should never connect to the Internet unless you have a virus-checking program installed on your computer.

It is vital to keep your virus monitoring software up to date. Many such as Norton Anti Virus allow you to update the program so that the program can check for recently discovered viruses.

More Information:

Macfee anti virus software

Norton Anti-virus software

DR Solomon anti-virus software

How to prevent virus damage

There are a number of third party anti-virus products available. Most of these are better than the rather rudimentary products available within DOS and Windows, but of course, you do have to pay for them! The main thing about your virus checker is that it should be kept up to date. Many companies supply updated disks on a regular basis or allow you to receive updates through an electronic, on-line bulletin board.

To make a diskette read-only

If you are using 3 1/2” diskette, there is a notch that can be opened or closed which may be used to protect the disk. To protect the contents of the disk move the notch to the open position (you should be able to see though the hole).

To password protect your computer

You can set a power-on password on your computer. The mechanism for setting this will vary from one computer to another, and is determined by the makers of the computer, rather than by DOS. The advantage of a power-on password is that the computer will not boot to DOS until you supply the correct password. This means that no one else can play around with your computer and in the process accidentally infect it with a virus.