YEAR OF STUDY II
(G) Grammar: Infinitive & its Functions
(L) Listening Interview about cybercafé
Cybercafé: benefits and dangers for children
(S) Speaking: History,
culture and traditions of
Mini-project: plan your own cybercafé!
(SR) Supplementary reading: Internet 2 - The next step
Security and privacy on the Internet
(G) Grammar (block I):
Translate the following sentences and state the forms and functions of the Infinitive (consult the table below):
1. The input unit to be described here is a new device.
2. To know English well you must work very hard.
3. The experiments to be carried out are very important.
4. To add and to subtract means to perform mathematical operations.
5. The students came to be instructed by the professor.
6. He (is/was) glad to have helped her.
7. She was glad to have been helped.
8. Information to be computed is usually stored in registers.
9. He was happy to have been working for so many years with this professor.
10. The programmer has to compile this program to give the exact commands to the computer.
Find the Infinitives, state their forms and functions. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian:
1. The problems to be settled will be very serious.
2. In this region there are no historical places (sightseeings) to be mentioned.
3. This method was introduced in the plant to achieve better results.
4. The valuable information to be collected by sputniks will help to forecast weather.
5. They were glad to take part in our discussion.
6. In fact, the computer takes only one-tenth of its total operating time to do the computing.
7. Many people came to this conference to discuss the problem of global warming.
8. The method is not good enough to be used in the future.
9. It didn’t take much time to extend this program.
10. The results to be received may vary considerably.
He remembered to have been living in the
12. He was too tired to be asked so many questions.
13. She was the first to speak at the meeting.
14. Experience has shown that government can do much to stabilize the economy.
15. To be objective is a must in any science.
16. As in many other cases two different attempts to deal with this problem can be found in the User’s Manual.
17. To achieve favourable conditions, we were forced to login once again.
18. There were few specialists to consult with.
19. To forecast the future we must analyze the past course of events.
20. Who will be the next to translate this sentence?
21. To start the computer it was necessary to reboot it.
22. Often referred to as network configuration, these settings are not allowed to change.
23. The very first thing you must do is to ensure that the computer is switched off.
24. The problem was too much difficult to be solved spontaneously, without being carefully considered.
Verbals with/ without to
Insert the Infinitives (with or without to) and translate the sentences into Ukrainian:
1. I would like /to discuss/ discuss/ this problem without being asked /to wait/ wait/.
2. Do you want /to read/ read/ this article now?
3. Could you /to tell/ tell/ me about the history of you native town?
4. You’d better /to go/ go/ to the Internet café without waiting for your turn.
5. The teacher made the students /to do/ do/ this difficult translation.
6. Let’s /to talk/ talk/ about different kinds of data communication systems.
7. Let me /to think/ think/ about your proposal.
8. Children are not allowed /to visit/ visit/ computing centers after 10 p.m.
9. Try / to understand/ understand/ how this device functions.
10. Are you going /to pass/ pass/ your exams next week?
11. Will you /to be able/ be able/ /to help/ help/ us with this network configuration?
12. It caused the pointer /to move/ move/ erratically.
Translate into English:
1. Їх попросили розповісти про історію рідного краю.
2. Зараз занадто пізно, щоб іти в парк.
3. Я хотіла б попрацювати над цією проблемою.
4. Він був радий взяти участь у роботі цієї конференції.
5. Давайте розглянемо функції цього приладу пізніше.
6. Він не знав, що потрібно було робити далі.
7. Вони приїхали, щоб познайомитися з традиціями нашого народу.
8. Досліди, які потрібно провести, будуть надзвичайно важливими для її дослідження.
9. Вони вивчають іноземні мови для того, щоб мати можливість читати літературу в оригіналі.
10. Скільки часу вам потрібно, щоб завершити цей дослід?
11. Не змушуйте мене нагадувати про вашу обіцянку ще раз.
12. Ми задоволені, що працюємо в цій лабораторії протягом 6 років.
Try to answer these questions.
How can a PC be connected to another computer?
What data communication systems can you think of? Make a list.
Match the data communication services on the left with the requirements on the right. Then read the passage and check your answers.
Channels of communication
What are “telecommunications”?
This term refers to the transmission of information over long distances using the telephone system, radio, TV satellite or computer links. Examples are two people speaking on the phone, a sales department sending a fax to a client or someone reading the teletext pages on TV But in the modern world, telecommunications mainly means transferring information from one PC to another via modem and phone lines (or fibre-optic cables).
What can you do with a modem?
A modem is your computer's link to the external world. With a modem you can exchange e-mail and files with friends and colleagues; you can access the Web and search for information about the stock market, current affairs, entertainment, etc.; you can participate in newsgroups and live conversations; you can make bank transactions and buy things from the comfort of your home. You can also access your office from your computer at home or your laptop in a hotel room.
Your PC is a digital device (it works with 1s and 0s). However, the telephone is an analogue device, designed to transmit the sounds of the human voice. That's why we need a modem — a bridge between digital and analogue signals. The word “modem” is an acronym for MOdulator / DEModulator. When a modem modulates, it sends rapid on/off pulses. The computer on the other end translates (demodulates) those signals into intelligible text or graphics. Modem transmission speeds are measured in kilobits per second. The conventional modem transmits data at 56 kbps: a cable modem offers speeds of up to 2 Mbps; and an ADSL modem supports data rates of 1.5 to 9 Mbps.
Today a lot of companies find it more efficient to have some employees doing their work at home. Using a modem, they transfer their work into the office where it is printed and distributed. The list of applications is endless.
What do you need to telecommunicate?
You just need a PC (or a terminal), a modem connected to the computer and the telephone line, and communication software. Once you have installed and configured your modem, you can communicate with people through bulletin boards and online services.
Local bulletin boards
Bulletin board systems (BBS) are frequently free because they are run by enthusiasts and sponsored by user groups or small businesses. The person who administers the BBS is called sysop (system operator). You can use a BBS to download artwork, games and programs, or you can participate in ongoing discussions. You can also upload (send) programs, but make sure they are shareware or public domain programs.
Online service providers
To gain access to the Net you must first open an account with a service provider.
Internet service providers give you a software package, username, password and access phone number. You can then log on to the Internet and browse the web, download files from FTP sites, and send and receive e-mail. Most ISPs charge a flat monthly or annual fee that gives you unlimited access.
Commercial online services e.g. America Online, CompuServe and the Microsoft Network. They differ from dedicated ISPs in two ways: (1) they use a smooth, easy-to-use interface, and (2) they have extra services for 60 members only (but they charge higher prices). For example, they offer airline reservations, professional forums, etc.
A fax machine sends and receives copies of original documents via a phone line.
on ITV and Channel Four is an information service
Complete the sentences by using a term from the list. Then write the words in the crossword.
1. When you are connected to the Internet you are described as being __________.
2. To communicate via the Internet you need a PC, a modem and a ___________ line.
3. To have access to the Internet you must first open an __________ with an Internet service provider.
4. You need a _____________ to convert computer data into a form that can be transmitted over the phone lines.
5. The public discussion areas on the Internet are called __________.
6. You can use a BBS to _________ clip-art, games and shareware to your PC.
7. CompuServe and America Online offer exclusive __________ to their customers.
8. The Internet is a global __________ of computer networks.
Match and link the pairs of expressions that have the same meaning:
(G) Grammar (block II):
a) In pairs, look at the words below and decide:
• what part of speech each word is
• where the stress falls on each item.
b) If you are not sure, look them up in a dictionary.
tele- means “at/over a distance”
Now write down some words formed by adding these prefixes.
1 auto- (means “self”)
2 trans- (means “across from one place to another”)
3 inter- (means “between”, “among”)
(L) Listening (block I):
a) Look at the photo below and try to answer these questions.
1. What is a cybercafé?
2. What services would you expect when entering a cybercafé?
b) Listen to this interview with Daniel Sturdy, the manager of an Internet
1. A cybercafé is a cafe where you can have access to the Internet and related services.
2. You can talk to people over the Internet as if you were speaking on the phone.
3. They don't help people who have problems while using the Internet.
4. A private e-mail account costs £10 a month.
5. At the moment they have got many international users.
6. You have to pay long-distance rates on the Internet.
7. In the café area you can sit, drink coffee and chat to people.
8. Most of the computers are in an upstairs area.
9. Choose the correct word to complete the list of things that you can do at a typical cybercafé:
10. (access/get into/enter) the Internet
11. (multiple/multiplayer/many-player) gaming
12. (look for/find/browse) the Web
13. (drink/take/make) coffee
14. (web/online/internet) telephony
15. chat (at/to/-) people
Read and translate the texts and get ready to speak on them:
The term “
During the reign of Volodymyr the Great the Christianity was adopted as a single religion in Rus’. During the reign of Yaroslav the Wise, Kyiv Rus reached the pike of its cultural flourishing. It was Yaroslav who adopted the first juridical norms of law: “Rus’ka Pravda”. During the reign of Volodymyr Monomah the state had the political as well as the territorial stability. He continued the work of Yaroslav on the development of culture and turned attention to education.
From the 13th century
After the overthrow of the tsar in March 1917, Ukrainian political and
military organizations convened an assembly in Kyiv, called the
The Ukrainian people suffered greatly during the World War II. 4
million and a half of Ukrainian people were killed, more than 2 million were
Only on the 24th of August in 1991 the Supreme Council of
Culture and Traditions in
On the 24th of August we celebrate the Independence Day. There are a lot of concerts and dances in the streets of Kyiv. This day is the greatest national holiday.
New Year Holiday is widely observed in
Christmas Day is observed on the 7th of January. This holiday is of religious origin. Most people observe the tradition of going to church and having a tasty dinner.
On the 8th of March we celebrate Women’s Day. It is a nice spring holiday when men give presents and flowers to their wives, sweethearts, girl-friends, sisters and daughters.
Another great national holiday is Easter, the holiday of celebrating Christ’s rising from the dead. It is a time of giving or receiving presents that traditionally took the form of an Easter egg.
April’s Fool’s Day named from the custom of playing practical jokes or sending on fool’s errands is on the 1st of April. People enjoy joking and laughing on this holiday.
The 9th of May is Victory Day, the holiday of victory over fascist invaders. People lay flowers to the war memorials, to the tombs of those who died in the war.
On the 7th of July our people celebrate an old heathen holiday, the Day if Ivan Kupalo. The celebration of the Day of Ivan Kupalo is rather a tradition than a holiday. On this day people gather at the banks of the river, make bonfires, etc. People say that on this day the water has a clearing power, young couples jump over the bonfires to know whether they’ll be together or not. It is very beautiful and unusual tradition of our people.
There are many other traditions in
Over the last few years Ukrainian people also celebrate such foreign holidays as St. Valentine’s Day and Halloween.
Mini-project: plan your own cybercafé!
Imagine you want to open an Internet café in town. In pairs, look at the box below and make a project about a café:
Read the passage, then choose the correct variant to complete the sentences:
One of the greatest advances in modern technology has been the invention of computers. They help us, fascinate us and occasionally scare us. The latest fear concerns children and computers. Some experts claim that brothers and sisters are starting to play more with computers than with one another, and that computers are distancing children from their parents.
Walking round a toyshop you find a home computer game to satisfy any child's violent imagination. Adult computer addicts are familiar figures: pale people who sit in front of green screens hour after hour. That is their choice. But the idea of a child living in front of a flashing green screen is somehow less acceptable. Canadian child psychologist Jams-Norton explains: These are children with few friends, afraid of making conversation. They are children who are usually allowed to do what they want. They cannot concentrate for long periods of time except in front of the screen. "If the computer games they play are violent," she adds, "they become indifferent to violence faster than they would through watching violent videos."
A frightening picture starts to appear. Jams-Norton sees a good number of troubled children. They usually persuade their parents to buy them a computer by saying it "will help their education." Computers, after all, are a central part of education today. Some educationalists enthusiastically look forward to the day when every child will have a personal computer in the class room and the class teacher will be nothing but a technician. That is not particularly appealing either, although with the current lack of teachers someone may soon decide it makes good economic sense. Jams-Norton disapproves of such an attitude, it is relationships with the teacher and the other pupils that make you learn."
We may be at a sort of crossroads. It is a question of whether we use the machines wisely or stupidly in bringing up children. "The computer, says the child psychologist, is only a surface problem but the real problem is not computers. It is parents who have forgotten how to be parents, or don't have the confidence. I wish they'd start noticing and worrying about what is happening a bit sooner."
A People are worried that children's dependence on computers may result in …
1.serious learning difficulties.
2.serious problems with health.
3.families having communication problems.
B Computer-dependent children …
1.concentrate on the screen for short periods only.
2.become violent or aggressive.
3.find it hard to communicate with other children.
4.stammer more often than other children.
C The idea of computer-dependent adults is acceptable because …
1.They can control their violent imaginations easily.
2.They are old enough to make their own decisions.
3.They can not stop looking at the flashing screen.
4.They don’t only use the computers for game.
D Some experts believe that in the future …
1.Every teacher will have a PC in the classroom.
2.It will be too expensive to give each schoolchild a computer.
3.Children will be educated at home using computers.
4.Most teaching will be done by computers.
E What is the real problem behind children's dependence on computers, according to the child psychologist?
1.Children's learning can be slowed down.
2.Parents do not participate in their children's education.
3.Children regard computers as toys not tools.
4.Parents do not have confidence when using computers.
(L) Listening (block II):
Listen to Diana Wilson, a member of the Internet Safety Foundation. She is talking about cyberspace's dangers and benefits for children. Complete the notes in this table:
(SR) Supplementary reading (block I):
Internet2 - The next step
Read the headings and the text. Then match them to the paragraphs.
· Partners for change
· Trials and challenges
· A new project
· Future plans
· Speed, security, service
Internet2 is a collaborative
project between universities, government agencies and industry partners in
There are three major challenges facing Internet2:
· to establish an
advanced communications infrastructure for the
· to develop new applications, such as digital libraries, telemedicine and virtual laboratories, allowing participants to send big packets of data and video at high speed. For example, teachers and students can view and consult during real-time medical operations, scientists can collaborate in virtual meetings etc
· to transfer the new network capabilities to all levels of education and to the rest of the Internet.
The I2 project is made up of three main categories of members: universities, non-profit organizations and corporate partners, i.e. sponsors and industries interested in investing in the project.
Internet2 is working together
with advanced networks such as the high-speed Backbone Network Service
developed by MCI/Worldcom, and the Next Generation Internet, which is being
built by US federal agencies. It runs on a new fibre-optic backbone called
Internet 2 and its fast backbones are not available to the general public yet, and its physical structure is not intended to replace the global Internet. But the plan for the future is to integrate the new technology with the public Internet and to make it available to everyone.
Fill in the gaps in these sentences using the passive forms of the verbs in the box:
1. The new national backbone
2. The Internet2 project __________ by UCAID in October 1996.
3. Funds and grants for research __________ by non-profit organizations like the National Science Foundation.
4. One objective of Internet2 is to develop new technologies that can __________ in the global Internet.
5. Huge packets of data and video __________ at high speed.
6. In the future it’s likely that all media (TV, web content, email, etc.) __________ over Internet2.
Refer to the text to find the term for these definitions:
In paragraph 1
· investigation undertaken to discover new facts
In paragraph 2
· technology that provides high-quality information to doctors over long distances
In paragraph 4:
· glass material that guides light impulses at high frequencies
· high-speed data highways that connect other networks
· 1,024 megabits
· specification that describes how computers will talk to each other on a network
Security and privacy on the Internet
There are a lot of benefits from an open system like the Internet, but we are also exposed to hackers who break into computer systems just for fun, as well as to steal information or propagate viruses. So how do you go about making online transactions secure?
Security on the Web
The question of security is crucial when sending confidential information such as credit to card numbers. For example, consider the process of buying a book on the Web. You have to type your credit card number into an order form which passes from computer to computer on its way to the online bookstore. If one of the intermediary computers is infiltrated by hackers, your data can be copied. It is difficult to say how often this happens, but it's technically possible.
To avoid risks, you should set all security alerts to high on your Web browser. Netscape Communicator and Internet Explorer display a lock when the Web page is secure and allow you to disable or delete “cookies”.
If you use online bank services, make sure your bank uses digital certificates. A popular security standard is SET (secure electronic transactions).
Similarly, as your e-mail message travels across the net, it is copied temporarily on many computers in between. This means it can be read by unscrupulous people who illegally enter computer systems.
The only way to protect a message is to put it in a sort of 'envelope', that is, to encode it with some form of encryption. A system designed to send e-mail privately is Pretty Good Privacy, a freeware program written by Phil Zimmerman.
Private networks connected to the Internet can be attacked by intruders who attempt to take valuable information such as Social Security numbers, bank accounts or research and business reports.
To protect crucial data, companies hire security consultants who analyse the risks and provide security solutions. The most common methods of protection are passwords for access control, encryption and decryption systems, and firewalls.
Viruses can enter a PC through files from disks, the Internet or bulletin board systems. If you want to protect your system, don't open e-mail attachments from strangers and take care when downloading files from the Web. (Plain text e-mail alone can't pass a virus.)
Remember also to update your anti-virus software as often as possible, since new viruses are being created all the time.
Do you know…
Viruses are small programs that hide themselves on your disks (both diskettes and your hard disk). Unless you use virus detection software the first time that you know that you have a virus is when it activates. Different viruses are activated in different ways. For instance, the famous Friday the 13th virus will activate only when it is both a Friday and the 13th of the month.
How do viruses infect PCs?
Viruses hide on a disk and when you access the disk (either a diskette or another hard disk over a network) the virus program will start and infect your computer. The worst thing about a computer virus is that they can spread from one computer to another, either via use of infected floppy disk, or over a computer network.
The Internet allows you to access files from all over the world and you should never connect to the Internet unless you have a virus-checking program installed on your computer.
It is vital to keep your virus monitoring software up to date. Many such as Norton Anti Virus allow you to update the program so that the program can check for recently discovered viruses.
Macfee anti virus software http://www.mcafee.com
Norton Anti-virus software http://www.symantec.com/avcenter
DR Solomon anti-virus software http://www.drsolomon.com
How to prevent virus damage
There are a number of third party anti-virus products available. Most of these are better than the rather rudimentary products available within DOS and Windows, but of course, you do have to pay for them! The main thing about your virus checker is that it should be kept up to date. Many companies supply updated disks on a regular basis or allow you to receive updates through an electronic, on-line bulletin board.
If you are using 3 1/2” diskette, there is a notch that can be opened or closed which may be used to protect the disk. To protect the contents of the disk move the notch to the open position (you should be able to see though the hole).
You can set a power-on password on your computer. The mechanism for setting this will vary from one computer to another, and is determined by the makers of the computer, rather than by DOS. The advantage of a power-on password is that the computer will not boot to DOS until you supply the correct password. This means that no one else can play around with your computer and in the process accidentally infect it with a virus.