YEAR OF STUDY II
(G) Grammar (block I):
Participles I, II vs. Gerund
Form the Participle I (Indefinite Active) from the following words:
to operate, to base, to provide, to design, to make, to refer, to translate, to execute, to include, to store, to load, to control.
Form the Participle II from the following words:
to find, to send, to add, to change, to take, to provide, to call, to know, to offer, to support, to modify, to do.
Translation of Participle I, II
Read and translate into Ukrainian the following expressions, paying attention to the Participles:
Translate the sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the Participle:
1. He heard the voices coming through the open window.
2. The input unit consists of some devices using different means.
3. The explanation given was not complete.
4. Performing addition the computer must have two numbers to be added.
5. Discussing the advantages of the new memory units the professor gave all necessary examples.
6. Having passed all the exams he left for Kyiv.
7. The results obtained are of great importance for his team.
8. Having had dinner they went for a walk.
9. Being built in a new way modern laboratories have better facilities.
10. Being well prepared for the exams the students could answer all the questions asked by the teacher examining them.
11. Having translated the article from the magazine he showed it to the teacher.
12. Translating an English article into Ukrainian consult the dictionary.
13. They were asked various questions formulated by sociologists.
14. The congress attended by many scientists attracted much attention.
Translate the following sentences paying attention to the –ing forms, state their function:
1. I have just translated a very interesting message.
2. In what capacity will you work after graduating from the University?
3. The specific meaning of any setting is significant only to the operation setting in the condition code.
4. When applying mathematical methods to the solving of technical problems engineers are most often interested in obtaining a finite numerical result.
5. Mathematical tables are necessary aids for performing computational work.
6. When writing a telegram you must use as few words as possible.
7. She doesn’t like being asked so many questions about her job.
8. We are having bad weather now.
9. Compiling a program requires great attention of a programmer.
10. Having visited our capital he shared his impressions of the city.
11. Where had you been working before you started working in our office?
12. Arranging my books on the shelf I discovered an old book.
13. He left the room saying that he was in a hurry.
14. I hope you will write soon explaining your being late.
15. Arriving early he found no one there.
16. The teacher explaining the rule was standing by the blackboard.
17. The reading-hall was full of students reading for their exams.
18. When he entered the room he heard the telephone ringing without pauses.
19. We noticed a singing bird in the tree.
20. A new currency, the hryvnia, was successfully introduced in 1996.
Public transportation in
22. Entrance to the Metro system is through turnstiles operated by blue plastic tokens, purchased in the station, or by monthly passes shown to the Metro attendant before entering the subway.
Functions of the –ing Forms
1. студенти, які вивчають англійську мову;
2. професор, який читає лекцію;
3. народ, який будує нове життя;
4. студент, який складає іспит;
5. методи, які поліпшують науково-дослідну роботу;
6. людина, яка пропонує свою допомогу;
7. вивчаючи іноземну мову;
8. відвідуючи цікаві місця;
9. прочитавши цікаву книгу;
10. вирішивши важливу проблему;
11. обговорюючи це питання;
12. лист, знайдений на столі;
13. прилад, сконструйований молодим інженером;
14. книга, залишена вдома;
1. Назвіть моря, які омивають територію нашої країни.
2. Будучи дуже зайнятим, він відклав своє відрядження.
3. Почувши кроки, він підняв голову.
4. Відвідавши кілька міст нашої країни, вони повернулися в столицю.
5. Це інженер, який застостовує найновіші досягнення у своєму проекті.
6. Студенти вивчають методи, які поліпшують науково-дослідну роботу.
7. Читаючи статтю, він робив нотатки.
8. Отримавши нову інформацію, ми змогли продовжити нашу роботу.
9. Натискаючи клавіші, оператор змушує машину працювати.
10. Він пішов, відмовившись допомогти.
11. Туристи часто відвідують церкву, побудовану ще в XV столітті.
12. Книги, написані Агатою Крісті, читають в усьому світі.
Absolute Participial Construction
1. It being late, we went upstairs.
2. This done and the program having been debugged, we went home.
3. The visit over, they set forth home.
4. I sat at my desk, pen in hand.
5. There being little time left, we had to hurry.
6. In the evening he read aloud, his small son sitting by his side.
7. The new computers were delivered, all of them being in good order.
Our efforts to repair the printer having failed, we spent a night in the laboratory.
Absolute Nominative Complex
1. The working day being over, the public transport was overcrowded.
2. The first automatic computers not being very reliable, scientists went on improving them.
3. All the problems having been solved, they stopped discussion.
4. Nobody being on the road, he could drive faster.
5. The experiments having been made, everyone is interested in the results.
6. People use computers widely, the latter helping in performing calculations at very high speed.
7. They all went home, he remaining at the lab.
8. Our lab being equipped with different new instruments, the students can do their practical work there.
9. The treaty having been signed, trade was at once resumed.
10. The cathode heated, the electrons leave the surface and move to the anode.
11. With the current on, the computer automatically begins operating.
12. Conference being over, we assembled in the hall.
Variants of Substituting Participial Constructions
1. Оскільки було дуже пізно, збори було закрито.
2. Комп’ютер використовують скрізь і його головна функція вирішувати складні проблеми за декілька секунд.
3. Оскільки нікого не було вдома, я вирішив попрацювати.
4. Оскільки мій принтер вийшов з ладу, ми не змогли надрукувати свою доповідь.
5. Якщо регістр зберігає код для числа 2, комп’ютер виконає операцію 2 рази.
6. Не зважаючи на те, що ми відвідали Київ вперше, ми змогли оглянути багато визначних місць міста.
(SR) Supplementary reading
Read the text and find:
1) the text-based operating system used in older PCs
2) the most secure and reliable version of the Windows family
3) the OS designed for handheld computers
4) the function of the Finder in Macintosh computers
5) the meaning of 'multi-tasking'
6) the OS written in C language and used on minicomputers and workstations
7) the OS that is freely redistributable under the GNU general public licence
8) the OS originally developed to run on SPARC workstations.
This operating system was developed
by Microsoft in 1981 for all IBM PC compatibles. Today it's only used in old
PCs. In this text-based OS, you communicate with the computer by typing
commands that exist within its library. For example, some basic DOS commands
include: DIR (shows a list of all the files in a directory), COPY (makes a
duplicate of a file),
Most home PCs use Windows. Here are the most recent versions:
• With Windows 98, Internet access becomes part of the user interface. Its active desktop lets you find information easily with the same view of content on your PC, network or the Web. The system includes Outlook Express for e-mail, NetMeeting conferencing software, a chat program and a Web-page editor. It offers advancements such as USB and multimedia extensions.
• Windows 2000 is built upon the Windows NT architecture and designed for business uses.
• Windows Millennium is designed for home use. It includes new system safeguards and support for DVD, music players and mobile computers.
• Windows XP is an update to all Windows versions, with a new visual design. It's more secure and reliable. It offers support for the latest technologies.
This OS is developed for handheld computers (or palmtops) that use a stylus or a small keyboard for input.
The Mac OS combines the elegance of Macintosh and the power of UNIX. Large parts of the Mac OS are inside the System file and the Finder, kept in the System folder. The content of the System file is loaded automatically at start-up, and contains information which modifies the routines of the OS in the ROM chips. The Finder displays the Macintosh's desktop and enables the user to work with disks, programs and files. With the new Mac OS. you can create CDs and record DVDs. It also offers Internet capabilities, support for Java, and AirPort technology for wireless connections.
This is the PC world's most technically sophisticated operating system. It provides true multi-tasking, allowing a program to be divided into 'threads', many of which can run at the same time. Thus, not only can numerous programs run simultaneously, but one program can perform numerous tasks at the same time.
The IBM OS/2 Warp includes easy access to networks via modem, support for Java applications, and voice recognition technology.
This OS, designed by Bell Laboratories for minicomputers and workstations, has been widely adopted by many corporate installations. From the very first, it was designed to be a multi-tasking system. It is written in C language.
It has become an operating environment for software development, available for any type of machine, from IBM PCs to Macs to Cray supercomputers. Unix is the most commonly used system for advanced CAD programs.
Protected under the GNU general public licence, Linux is the open source, cooperatively-developed POSLX-based, multi-tasking operating system. Linux is used as a high value, fully-functional UNIX workstation for applications ranging from Internet Servers to reliable work group computing. Linux is available for Intel, Alpha and Sun SPARC platforms.
This is a Unix-based operating system developed by Sun Microsystems. Originally designed to run on SPARC workstations, today Solaris also runs on many Pentium servers. It supports multi-processing - many CPUs and processes on a single system. It includes Java technology, which allows Web pages to display animation, play music and interact with information.
Read the text below and complete it with the phrases in the box:
Information provided by programs and data is known as (1) ___________. Programs are sets of instructions that make the computer execute operations and tasks. There are two main types of software:
The (2) ___________ refers to all the programs which control the basic functions of a computer. They include operating systems, system utilities (e.g. an anti-virus program, a back-up utility) and language translators (e.g. a compiler - the software that translates instructions into machine code").
The (3) ___________ refers to all those applications - such as word processors and spreadsheets - which are used for specific purposes. Applications are usually stored on disks loaded into the RAM memory when activated by the user.
The (4) ___________ is the most important type of system software. It is usually supplied by the manufacturers and comprises a set of programs and files that control the hardware and software resources of a computer system. It controls all the elements that the user sees, and it communicates directly with the computer. In most configurations, the OS is automatically loaded into the RAM section when the computer is started up.
Do you know…
Types of software
What is an Operating System? - The operating system is a special type of program that loads automatically when you start your computer. The operating system allows you to use the advanced features of a modern computer without having to learn all the details of how the hardware works. There are a number of different types of operating system in common use. The IBM PC (Personal Computer) was introduced way back in 1981 and was originally supplied with an operating system called DOS (Disk Operating System). This operating system was very basic, and you had to be a bit of a computer expert just to understand how to use it. It was NOT user-friendly!
Later on, Microsoft introduced Windows and this is the operating system that is most widely used on PCs today.
To complicate matters further, there are a number of different types of Windows. The first widely used version of Windows was called Windows 3.1. This was more powerful than DOS and far easier to use. It had a Graphical User Interface (GUI), i.e. you could 'drive' it using a mouse and drop down menus. Later Windows 95/NT/98/2000 were introduced. The good news is that later versions of Microsoft Windows look almost identical to each other and are all much easier to use than Windows 3.1.
What is an Application Program? - An application program is the type of program that you use once the operating system has been loaded. Examples include word-processing programs, (for producing letters, memos etc), spreadsheets (for doing accounts and working with numbers), databases (for organizing large amounts of information) and graphics programs (for producing pictures, advertisements, manuals etc).
What is a Graphical User Interface? - A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is simply an additional part of the operating system that displays windows and drop down menus, and also enables you to drive your computer using a mouse. Examples of operating system that use a GUI include Windows 3.1, Windows 95/98/2000, Windows NT and IBM's OS/2.
· All programs look similar.
· When you switch from a program supplied by one manufacturer to one from a different manufacturer, you will find the transition very easy.
· Application programs work in the same way as the underlying operating system.
The GUI also allows programmers to easily write consistent looking programs.
a) Read the information below and then listen to four advertisements from a radio program about computers:
b) Number these system utilities in the order in which you hear them
c) Listen again. Which utility would you use for each of these requirements?
(S) Speaking (block I):
(G) Grammar (block II):
Countable & Uncountable Nouns
Complete this text with a, an, the (or nothing at all) as necessary:
At school we have (1)_______ computer in every classroom. We use (2) _______ computer to do (3) _______ projects and to study (4) _______ music and languages.
The teachers use
PCs to print articles, songs, or activities for use in class. This year, they
are preparing (5) _______ exchange with a college in
At home I use my computer to send and receive (8) _______ e-mail and to play (9) _______ computer games. I have (10) _______ ink-jet printer.
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate article if one is needed:
The computer jungle
Though you can make ____ decision on purely economic grounds, buying ____ computer is often more like joining ____ religious cult. Buy ____ Apple, for example, and almost by default you join Apple chairman Steve Jobs in his crusade against IBM. Every machine has its "users' groups" and ____ band of loyal enthusiasts who tout its merits. That makes it all ____ more difficult for ____ uninitiated to decide what machine to buy. Students have ____ huge advantage, however. The computer companies are so eager for students' business (it builds "brand loyalty") that many offer huge discounts.
In the past six months, IBM, Apple, and others have brought out new computers, and ____ fierce competition has forced prices down. Also, time is on your side: next year at ____ time you'll have even more choice and more computing power and features for ____ same price. On ____ other hand, this will probably be true for many years. So for those who need or want ____ computer now, it's a great time to buy one.
a) Complete this extract from a wiki entry about Windows Vista by choosing the correct article (the/a/an/-):
is ____ operating system developed by Microsoft for use on ____ personal
computers. Development was completed on November 8, 2006;
over ____ next three months it was released in stages to ____ computer
manufacturers, ____ business customers, and ____ shops. On January 30, 2007,
it was released worldwide to the general public, and was
made available for purchase and download direct from Microsoft. ____ release
of Windows Vista comes more than five years after ____ introduction of
b) Decide if these words (which appear in bold) are countable or uncountable, depending on how they are used in this context.
Usage of some, any, no
a) 1. Somebody has taken my pen. 2. I saw something dark in the garden. 3. Someone must go with him. 4. He lives somewhere near our house.
b) 1. Do you know anybody (anyone) here? 2. There is not anybody (anyone) in the office. 3. Do you want anything else? 4. I can’t see anything. 5. You can do anything you like. 6. Did you go anywhere yesterday? 8. You can buy the book anywhere.
c) 1. Nobody will believe you. 2. I saw none of my friends. 3. It means nothing to him. 4. I have nowhere to go.
1. We have some friends living there.
2. There is no milk left.
3. We found some new words in the text.
4. We have heard some news that might interest you.
5. Have you any books published on the subject?
6. Have you noticed any changes?
7. Have you got any money on you?
8. Is there any letter for me?
9. There is not any butter left.
10. We don’t use any new technologies while programming.
(S) Speaking (block II):
The official name of our
It stretches for
Its land borders stretch for
The population of
The largest part of
The only mountains are the Ukrainian Carpathians in the west and the Crimean mountains in the extreme south.
The southern part of
The animal and the vegetable
President is the head of the
state. A president is elected by the people of the country at a general
elections for a period of five years. A president cannot be younger than 35
years of age, must be a citizen of
The highest body of state power is Parliament. Ukrainian Parliament is called the Supreme (Verkhovna) Rada. It consists of one chamber only and includes 450 people's deputies. The laws of the country are made by them. The chairman of the Supreme Rada is elected by its members.
The Cabinet of Ministers is responsible for the realization of laws adopted by the Supreme Rada. It is headed by the Prime-Minister. He is elected for a period of 4 years and he forms his cabinet to his liking. On the 28th of June, 1996 at its fifth session the Supreme Rada adopted the Constitution of Independent Ukraine - the main law of our country.
The state flag of
Like any other country,
It is the scientific and
cultural centre of
Kyiv is also famous for its
beauty, for its wonderful streets, lots of chestnut trees and flowers all
over the city. It is situated on the
Kharkiv is the former
Odesa is a big seaport and a resort place, a centre of machine-building and food industries. Lviv is a large cultural, scientific and industrial centre. Zaporizhzhya is a metallurgical, automobile, agricultural machine-building centre.
Winter is rather mild with no severe frosts but with snow falls everywhere. The rivers and the lakes freeze. Winter sets in December. The coldest month is January. The temperature is about 15-20 degrees below zero. The coldest region is that in the north and in the north-east. Bun it often happens that winters are rainy and mild.
1. Which region do you live in? What regions surround it?
2. Which countries
3. Look at the Ukrainian banknotes. Which regions and landmarks are shown on them?
4. What is the
5. Where is
6. What is the
7. What is the
8. Where are the mountains located?
9. What are the major Ukrainian rivers?
What natural resources is
11. When was Ukraine proclaimed an independent state?
12. What kind of republic is it?
13. Who can be elected a president?
14. Who makes the laws of our country?
15. What is the Cabinet of Ministers responsible for?
16. Who heads the Cabinet?
17. When was the Constitution of Ukraine adopted?
What is the state flag of
19. What is the national emblem of our country?
How many regions are there in
21. What are the local bodies of state power called?
22. When was Kyiv founded?
Why is the climate different in various parts of
24. What is the hottest (the coldest) region?
What is the climate of the Crimea (the rest of
26. What is winter (spring, summer, autumn) like?
1. Independent and having the power to make decisions
2. Those data show their choice or opinion in an election
3. Joining the parts of a divided group, party or country together again
4. People who have a legal right to live in a particular country
5. Announced something officially or publicly
6. Members of the Ukrainian Parliament
Important Information and Statistics
On 24th August, 1) ____,
Since the collapse of Kyivan Rus’, present day
According to the Constitution of Ukraine, the territorial structure of
the country is composed of 5) ____ oblasts
(regions) and the
The Structure of the National Government
Under the Constitution, the powers of the government are divided into three branches - the legislative (1), which consists of the Verkhovna Rada (the Ukrainian Parliament), the executive (2), headed by the President with the Cabinet of Ministers as the highest body and the judicial (3), which is led by the Supreme Court.
The parliament has one house that is represented by 6) ____ people's deputies
elected for four year terms by the citizens of
The President is elected directly by the voters for a term of five years with no more than two full terms. The President of Ukraine secures state independence, human rights and freedoms. The executive power in oblasts and rayons is exercised by local state administrations. Their heads are appointed by the President and are responsible to him.
1. The executive power is headed by the Supreme Court.
2. The Verkhovna Rada's main function is making laws.
3. Tne Prime-Minister secures state independence, human rights and freedoms.
4. The heads of the local state administrations are elected by the people.
Kyiv — the capital of Ukraine
Kyiv, the capital of
There are many places of historic interest in it. Among them there are the Kyivo-Pechersk Monastery (arose in the 11th century), St. Sophia’s Cathedral (1037), the Golden Gates (the remains of only one of them has come down to us). The tsar’s palace and St. Andrew’s Church were built after the design of V. Rastrelli in 17-18 centuries.
Kyiv is situated
on the hilly right bank and low left bank of the
It is one of the
most beautiful cities of
A large part of
Kyiv is a
cultural and academic centre of
There is a great number of secondary schools, universities, institutes, and colleges as well as the National Academy of Sciences there.
life is rich and varied. There are many theatres, museums, and exhibitions in
it. There are government-funded museums in Kyiv: the
There are also museums organised and run by private individuals. The main professional theatres in Kyiv are: the National Opera, the Ukrainian Drama Theatre, the Operetta Theatre, the Puppet Theatre and many others. They are greatly appreciated by the citizens of Kyiv and the guests of the city.
Kyiv is famous
for its monuments. The monument to Prince Volodymyr in the picturesque park
on the Dnipro hills has become a symbol of the ancient city. Many monuments
have been erected in Kyiv’s squares, parks and other public places. Kyiv is
the Hero-City. In the
The main street
in Kyiv is
During the Great Patriotic War this street was almost completely destroyed and it was rebuilt in the post-war years. There are many fine buildings in Khreshchatyk, which form the unique architectural ensemble.
Kyiv, the old and ever young city, is the pride and glory of the Ukrainian people.