Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3


Unit 4

Unit 5

Unit 6

Unit 7

Словник комп'ютерних термінів

Граматичні таблиці

Список літератури



Unit 1

(G) Grammar:             

Participles I, II


Absolute Participle Construction


Absolute Nominative Complex




Articles, Countable & Uncountable


Nouns, some, any, no

(R) Reading:

Storage units

(SR) Supplementary reading:

Operating systems


Types of software

(L) Listening

System utilities

(S) Speaking:



Kyiv — the capital of Ukraine

(G) Grammar (block I):

Participles I, II vs. Gerund




(to V0)


Participle I (  Ving  )

Participle II

(V3/    Ved  )



to ask




to be asked

being asked




to have asked

having asked



to have been asked

having been asked




to be asking


Perfect Cont.


to have been asking


Exercise 1G.

Form the Participle I (Indefinite Active) from the following words:

to operate, to base, to provide, to design, to make, to refer, to translate, to execute, to include, to store, to load, to control.


Exercise 2G.

Form the Participle II from the following words:

to find, to send, to add, to change, to take, to provide, to call, to know, to offer, to support, to modify, to do.

Translation of Participle I, II


– учи

– ючи

– ачи

– ячи

– учий

– ючий

– ячий

– ячий

Walking along the street I met him. — Йдучи по вулиці, я зустрів його.

We saw a trembling dog. — Ми побачили тремтячу собаку.

There were only children drawing something in the hall. В холі були тільки діти, які щось малювали.

being V3/Ved

Being written the article seemed easy. – Будучи написаною, стаття здавалась простою

Money spent on brain isnt spent in vain. – Гроші, витрачені на розум, витрачені недаремно.

having V3/Ved ® –вши

Having got what he wanted, he went away. -

Отримавши те, що він бажав, він пішов.


Exercise 3G.

Read and translate into Ukrainian the following expressions, paying attention to the Participles:

  • the tourists visiting our country; the students attending all the lectures; the plan containing many details; the growing population of the country; the student studying foreign languages; the engineer carrying out the research.
  • dividing into 2 parts; using new technologies; discovering new lands; receiving important information; working at high speeds; graduating from the University.
  • having entered the University; having calculated the distance; having installed a new equipment; having built a new lab; having passed all the exams; having returned from the hostel; having studied the history of the country; having visited Kyiv.
  • the archived results; commonly used systems; the information obtained recently; the lecture read by a well-known professor; the books translated into foreign languages; the methods offered by the young specialists; the film shown to the students; languages taught at the University.


Exercise 4G.

Translate the sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the Participle:

1.     He heard the voices coming through the open window.

2.     The input unit consists of some devices using different means.

3.     The explanation given was not complete.

4.     Performing addition the computer must have two numbers to be added.

5.     Discussing the advantages of the new memory units the professor gave all necessary examples.

6.     Having passed all the exams he left for Kyiv.

7.     The results obtained are of great importance for his team.

8.     Having had dinner they went for a walk.

9.     Being built in a new way modern laboratories have better facilities.

10.                       Being well prepared for the exams the students could answer all the questions asked by the teacher examining them.

11.                       Having translated the article from the magazine he showed it to the teacher.

12.                       Translating an English article into Ukrainian consult the dictionary.

13.                       They were asked various questions formulated by sociologists.

14.                       The congress attended by many scientists attracted much attention.


Exercise 5G.

Translate the following sentences paying attention to the –ing forms, state their function:

1.     I have just translated a very interesting message.

2.     In what capacity will you work after graduating from the University?

3.     The specific meaning of any setting is significant only to the operation setting in the condition code.

4.     When applying mathematical methods to the solving of technical problems engineers are most often interested in obtaining a finite numerical result.

5.     Mathematical tables are necessary aids for performing computational work.

6.     When writing a telegram you must use as few words as possible.

7.     She doesn’t like being asked so many questions about her job.

8.     We are having bad weather now.

9.     Compiling a program requires great attention of a programmer.

10.                       Having visited our capital he shared his impressions of the city.

11.                       Where had you been working before you started working in our office?

12.                       Arranging my books on the shelf I discovered an old book.

13.                       He left the room saying that he was in a hurry.

14.                       I hope you will write soon explaining your being late.

15.                       Arriving early he found no one there.

16.                       The teacher explaining the rule was standing by the blackboard.

17.                       The reading-hall was full of students reading for their exams.

18.                       When he entered the room he heard the telephone ringing without pauses.

19.                       We noticed a singing bird in the tree.

20.                       A new currency, the hryvnia, was successfully introduced in 1996.

21.                       Public transportation in Kiev is efficient and inexpensive, but crowded.

22.                       Entrance to the Metro system is through turnstiles operated by blue plastic tokens, purchased in the station, or by monthly passes shown to the Metro attendant before entering the subway.

Functions of the –ing Forms




ння (іменник)


Learning| rules without examples is useless

Заучування правил без прикладів марна робота

Seeing is believing

Побачити значить повірити

–ть, –ти (інфінітив)


I am interested |in collecting| stamps

Я цікавлюсь колекціонуванням марок

дієслово в особовій формі

Part of the Predicate

I enjoy collecting stamps

Я насолоджуюсь колекціонуванням марок

I began collecting stamps

Я почав колекціонувати марки


He is readingВін читає





– ячи


Adverbial Modifier

Used after:




Entering |the room he saw his parents

Зайшовши в кімнату, він побачив батьків

He stood for a time, |listening| to the voices

Деякий час він стояв, слухаючи голоси

When reading| the book I remembered my childhood

Читаючи цю книгу, я згадав своє дитинство

Підрядне речення з сполучниками

який, що


I saw a shadow |passing| on her face

I saw |a passing shadow| on her face

Я побачив тінь, що пробігала по її обличчю

Exercise 6G.
Translate the expressions into English:

1.     студенти, які вивчають англійську мову;

2.     професор, який читає лекцію;

3.     народ, який будує нове життя;

4.     студент, який складає іспит;

5.     методи, які поліпшують науково-дослідну роботу;

6.     людина, яка пропонує свою допомогу;

7.     вивчаючи іноземну мову;

8.     відвідуючи цікаві місця;

9.     прочитавши цікаву книгу;

10.                       вирішивши важливу проблему;

11.                       обговорюючи це питання;

12.                       лист, знайдений на столі;

13.                       прилад, сконструйований молодим інженером;

14.                       книга, залишена вдома;

Exercise 7G.
Translate into English:

1.     Назвіть моря, які омивають територію нашої країни.

2.     Будучи дуже зайнятим, він відклав своє відрядження.

3.     Почувши кроки, він підняв голову.

4.     Відвідавши кілька міст нашої країни, вони повернулися в столицю.

5.     Це інженер, який застостовує найновіші досягнення у своєму проекті.

6.     Студенти вивчають методи, які поліпшують науково-дослідну роботу.

7.     Читаючи статтю, він робив нотатки.

8.     Отримавши нову інформацію, ми змогли продовжити нашу роботу.

9.     Натискаючи клавіші, оператор змушує машину працювати.

10.                       Він пішов, відмовившись допомогти.

11.                       Туристи часто відвідують церкву, побудовану ще в XV столітті.

12.                       Книги, написані Агатою Крісті, читають в усьому світі.

Absolute Participial Construction

Subject + Participle

Subject + Predicate

The work being finished

Оскільки (так як) робота була завершена,

they went home.

вони пішли додому.

Subject + Participle + Subject + Predicate

The new method was tried, better results being obtained.

Новий метод було випробувано і кращі результати були досягнуті.

Exercise 8G.
Translate into Ukrainian:

1.     It being late, we went upstairs.

2.     This done and the program having been debugged, we went home.

3.     The visit over, they set forth home.

4.     I sat at my desk, pen in hand.

5.     There being little time left, we had to hurry.

6.     In the evening he read aloud, his small son sitting by his side.

7.     The new computers were delivered, all of them being in good order.

Our efforts to repair the printer having failed, we spent a night in the laboratory.

Absolute Nominative Complex



Participle I (Ving)

beginning of the sentence

The situation being urgent, we had to go ahead

Оскільки ситуація була невідкладною, ми змушені були йти вперед

end of the sentence

We set off, the rain coming down heavily

Ми вирушили в дорогу, хоча ішов рясний дощ


Participle II


beginning of the sentence

The work done, we went home

Коли робота була закінчена, ми пішли додому

end of the sentence

He stood with his eyes closed

Він стояв, заплющивши очі

Він стояв, його очі були заплющені





beginning of the sentence

His first shot a failure, he fired again

Оскільки його перший постріл був невдалим, він вистрілив знову



Tea over, we gathered on the terrace

Коли випили чай, ми зібралися на терасі


Exercise 9G.
Translate into Ukrainian:

1.     The working day being over, the public transport was overcrowded.

2.     The first automatic computers not being very reliable, scientists went on improving them.

3.     All the problems having been solved, they stopped discussion.

4.     Nobody being on the road, he could drive faster.

5.     The experiments having been made, everyone is interested in the results.

6.     People use computers widely, the latter helping in performing calculations at very high speed.

7.     They all went home, he remaining at the lab.

8.     Our lab being equipped with different new instruments, the students can do their practical work there.

9.     The treaty having been signed, trade was at once resumed.

10.                       The cathode heated, the electrons leave the surface and move to the anode.

11.                       With the current on, the computer automatically begins operating.

12.                       Conference being over, we assembled in the hall.


Variants of Substituting Participial Constructions



Participial Construction

Jane’s coming surprised me.

That Jane was coming surprised me.


Те, що Джейн приїде, здивувало мене.

Parallel Sentence


Participial Construction

They objected to his applying this method to practice.

They objected that he should apply this method to practice

Вони заперечували проти того, щоб він застосовував цей метод на практиці.

Parallel Sentence


Participial Construction

Her hands showed no signs of their being used for hard work.

Her hands showed no signs that they were used for hard work.


Її руки не мали слідів важкої праці.

Parallel Sentence

Adverbial Modifier

Participial Construction

Despite it being cold they would not stop their observations.

Despite (the fact that) it was cold they would not stop their observations

Незважаючи на те, що було холодно вони не бажали припиняти свої спостереження.

Parallel Sentence


Exercise 10G.
Translate into English:

1.     Оскільки було дуже пізно, збори було закрито.

2.     Комп’ютер використовують скрізь і його головна функція вирішувати складні проблеми за декілька секунд.

3.     Оскільки нікого не було вдома, я вирішив попрацювати.

4.     Оскільки мій принтер вийшов з ладу, ми не змогли надрукувати свою доповідь.

5.     Якщо регістр зберігає код для числа 2, комп’ютер виконає операцію 2 рази.

6.     Не зважаючи на те, що ми відвідали Київ вперше, ми змогли оглянути багато визначних місць міста.

(R) Reading
Exercise 1R.
Read and translate the text paying attention to the underlined words:

                                                                             Storage units
The part of a digital computer which stores information is called storage. There are two important factors about the memory unit: an access time and a capacity. The average time is measured in milliseconds. You have to distinguish between access time and data transfer rate. Remember that the transfer rate depends also upon the power of your PC.
If you only use word-processing programs you will need less storage capacity. External memory or storage units may use magnetic tapes, magnetic disks or floppy disks.
The surface of a disk is divided into concentric circles or tracks, one read/write head being for each circle.
When you save a file, the operating system moves the read/write heads of the disk drive towards empty sectors recording the data and writing an entry for the directory.
Internal or main memory units consist of magnetic cores, each core representing one bit of information. Internal and external devices which are both rigid disks sealed into the drive unit, either within or attached to the computer. Another type of hard drive known as “removable”, allows you to record data on “cartridges” which can be removed and stored off-line for security purposes.
Laptops use pocket-sized drives, and digital cameras and music players use microdrives with special cards.

(SR) Supplementary reading


Exercise 1SR.

Read the text and find:

1)       the text-based operating system used in older PCs

2)       the most secure and reliable version of the Windows family

3)       the OS designed for handheld computers

4)       the function of the Finder in Macintosh computers

5)       the meaning of 'multi-tasking'

6)       the OS written in C language and used on minicomputers and workstations

7)       the OS that is freely redistributable under the GNU general public licence

8)       the OS originally developed to run on SPARC workstations.

Operating systems

This operating system was developed by Microsoft in 1981 for all IBM PC compatibles. Today it's only used in old PCs. In this text-based OS, you communicate with the computer by typing commands that exist within its library. For example, some basic DOS commands include: DIR (shows a list of all the files in a directory), COPY (makes a duplicate of a file), DEL (deletes files).

Most home PCs use Windows. Here are the most recent versions:

   With Windows 98, Internet access becomes part of the user interface. Its active desktop lets you find information easily with the same view of content on your PC, network or the Web. The system includes Outlook Express for e-mail, NetMeeting conferencing software, a chat program and a Web-page editor. It offers advancements such as USB and multimedia extensions.

   Windows 2000 is built upon the Windows NT architecture and designed for business uses.

   Windows Millennium is designed for home use. It includes new system safeguards and support for DVD, music players and mobile computers.

   Windows XP is an update to all Windows versions, with a new visual design. It's more secure and reliable. It offers support for the latest technologies.

This OS is developed for handheld computers (or palmtops) that use a stylus or a small keyboard for input.


The Mac OS combines the elegance of Macintosh and the power of UNIX. Large parts of the Mac OS are inside the System file and the Finder, kept in the System folder. The content of the System file is loaded automatically at start-up, and contains information which modifies the routines of the OS in the ROM chips. The Finder displays the Macintosh's desktop and enables the user to work with disks, programs and files. With the new Mac OS. you can create CDs and record DVDs. It also offers Internet capabilities, support for Java, and AirPort technology for wireless connections.

This is the PC world's most technically sophisticated operating system. It provides true multi-tasking, allowing a program to be divided into 'threads', many of which can run at the same time. Thus, not only can numerous programs run simultaneously, but one program can perform numerous tasks at the same time.

The IBM OS/2 Warp includes easy access to networks via modem, support for Java applications, and voice recognition technology.

This OS, designed by Bell Laboratories for minicomputers and workstations, has been widely adopted by many corporate installations. From the very first, it was designed to be a multi-tasking system. It is written in C language.

It has become an operating environment for software development, available for any type of machine, from IBM PCs to Macs to Cray supercomputers. Unix is the most commonly used system for advanced CAD programs.

Protected under the GNU general public licence, Linux is the open source, cooperatively-developed POSLX-based, multi-tasking operating system. Linux is used as a high value, fully-functional UNIX workstation for applications ranging from Internet Servers to reliable work group computing. Linux is available for Intel, Alpha and Sun SPARC platforms.

This is a Unix-based operating system developed by Sun Microsystems. Originally designed to run on SPARC workstations, today Solaris also runs on many Pentium servers. It supports multi-processing - many CPUs and processes on a single system. It includes Java technology, which allows Web pages to display animation, play music and interact with information.


Exercise 2SR.

Read the text below and complete it with the phrases in the box:


applications software       operating system       software       system software


Information provided by programs and data is known as (1) ___________. Programs are sets of instructions that make the computer execute operations and tasks. There are two main types of software:

The (2) ___________ refers to all the programs which control the basic functions of a computer. They include operating systems, system utilities (e.g. an anti-virus program, a back-up utility) and language translators (e.g. a compiler - the software that translates instructions into machine code").

The (3) ___________ refers to all those applications - such as word processors and spreadsheets - which are used for specific purposes. Applications are usually stored on disks loaded into the RAM memory when activated by the user.

The (4) ___________ is the most important type of system software. It is usually supplied by the manufacturers and comprises a set of programs and files that control the hardware and software resources of a computer system. It controls all the elements that the user sees, and it communicates directly with the computer. In most configurations, the OS is automatically loaded into the RAM section when the computer is started up.


Exercise 3SR.

Do you know…

Types of software

What is an Operating System? - The operating system is a special type of program that loads automatically when you start your computer. The operating system allows you to use the advanced features of a modern computer without having to learn all the details of how the hardware works. There are a number of different types of operating system in common use. The IBM PC (Personal Computer) was introduced way back in 1981 and was originally supplied with an operating system called DOS (Disk Operating System). This operating system was very basic, and you had to be a bit of a computer expert just to understand how to use it. It was NOT user-friendly!

Later on, Microsoft introduced Windows and this is the operating system that is most widely used on PCs today.

To complicate matters further, there are a number of different types of Windows. The first widely used version of Windows was called Windows 3.1. This was more powerful than DOS and far easier to use. It had a Graphical User Interface (GUI), i.e. you could 'drive' it using a mouse and drop down menus. Later Windows 95/NT/98/2000 were introduced. The good news is that later versions of Microsoft Windows look almost identical to each other and are all much easier to use than Windows 3.1.

More Information:



What is an Application Program? - An application program is the type of program that you use once the operating system has been loaded. Examples include word-processing programs, (for producing letters, memos etc), spreadsheets (for doing accounts and working with numbers), databases (for organizing large amounts of information) and graphics programs (for producing pictures, advertisements, manuals etc).

What is a Graphical User Interface? - A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is simply an additional part of the operating system that displays windows and drop down menus, and also enables you to drive your computer using a mouse. Examples of operating system that use a GUI include Windows 3.1, Windows 95/98/2000, Windows NT and IBM's OS/2.

The advantages of using a GUI:

·        All programs look similar.

·        When you switch from a program supplied by one manufacturer to one from a different manufacturer, you will find the transition very easy.

·        Application programs work in the same way as the underlying operating system.

The GUI also allows programmers to easily write consistent looking programs.

L) Listening  

Task (Recording 1)   icon
Exercise 1L.

a)                Read the information below and then listen to four advertisements from a radio program about computers:

System utilities are small programs which improve a system's performance and help users take advantage of the computer's capabilities. They are often desk accessories that can be called up while you're working in another application. They can also be INITs, i.e. system extensions which are activated when you turn on the computer, control devices which you adjust in the control panel, or even stand-alone programs that run when you need them. Utilities are available for back-up, file search, virus protection, disaster recovery, and so on.


b)                Number these system utilities in the order in which you hear them

□  screen saver

□  crashed disk rescuer and data recovery

□  virus detector

□  multimedia player

c)     Listen again. Which utility would you use for each of these requirements?

  • To play and organize multimedia on your PC.
  • To diagnose and repair damaged disks.
  • To automatically blank out the screen after a specific interval of inactive time (so that the image does not burn into the screen).
  • To protect your system against computer viruses.

(S) Speaking (block I):

Exercise 1S.
Look at the diagram. What is the function of the operating system?

(G) Grammar (block II):

Exercise 11G.
Here are some common nouns in computing. Divide them into countable and uncountable nouns. Look at the table and use a dictionary if necessary:

1. window

4. robotics

7. hacking

2. program

5. hacker

8. workstation

3. system

6. hardware

9. web searching


Exercise 12G.
These sentences contain typical errors.
Correct them:

1. We are having a terrible weather.

4. The news were very depressing.

2. Can you give me an advice?

5. I like the furnitures.

3. I need some informations.

6. Much people use the Web today.


Countable & Uncountable Nouns

Their Identifiers



Countable Nouns

Uncountable Nouns



a, an (один, якийсь)


all (всі)




any (будь-який)



both (обидва)


a certain (певний)


certain (певні)


each (кожний)


either (будь-який)


enough (достатній)


every (кожний)


(a) few (мало, декілька)


half (половина)




(a) little (мало, трохи)


many (багато)


much (багато)


my, your (та ін.)




neither (ніякий)


no (ніякий)




the only (єдиний, один)



another (інший)


other (інший)



the other (інший(і))




the same (той же, однаковий)




several (декілька, немало)


some (декілька, немало)



some (трохи, якісь)




such a (такий)


such (такі, такий)



that (той)



the (цей)




thesе (ці)


this (цей)



those (ті)


the very (той самий)




what (який)




which (котрий)




whose (чий)









Exercise 13G.

Complete this text with a, an, the (or nothing at all) as necessary:


At school we have (1)_______ computer in every classroom. We use (2) _______ computer to do (3) _______ projects and to study (4) _______ music and languages.

The teachers use PCs to print articles, songs, or activities for use in class. This year, they are preparing (5) _______ exchange with a college in Norfolk. We all use it to get (6) _______ information from (7) _______ Internet.

At home I use my computer to send and receive (8) _______ e-mail and to play (9) _______ computer games. I have (10) _______ ink-jet printer.


Exercise 14G.

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate article if one is needed:


The computer jungle

Though you can make ____ decision on purely economic grounds, buying ____ computer is often more like joining ____ religious cult. Buy ____ Apple, for example, and almost by default you join Apple chairman Steve Jobs in his crusade against IBM. Every machine has its "users' groups" and ____ band of loyal enthusiasts who tout its merits. That makes it all ____ more difficult for ____ uninitiated to decide what machine to buy. Students have ____ huge advantage, however. The computer companies are so eager for students' business (it builds "brand loyalty") that many offer huge discounts.

In the past six months, IBM, Apple, and others have brought out new computers, and ____ fierce competition has forced prices down. Also, time is on your side: next year at ____ time you'll have even more choice and more computing power and features for ____ same price. On ____ other hand, this will probably be true for many years. So for those who need or want ____ computer now, it's a great time to buy one.


Exercise 15G.

a)                Complete this extract from a wiki entry about Windows Vista by choosing the correct article (the/a/an/-):

Windows Vista is ____ operating system developed by Microsoft for use on ____ personal computers. Development was completed on November 8, 2006; over ____ next three months it was released in stages to ____ computer manufacturers, ____ business customers, and ____ shops. On January 30, 2007, it was released worldwide to the general public, and was made available for purchase and download direct from Microsoft. ____ release of Windows Vista comes more than five years after ____ introduction of Windows XP.
Vista contains hundreds of new and improved features. The most significant include ____ updated GUI and visual style called Windows Aero, improved search features, new multimedia creation tools, and completely redesigned networking, audio, print, and display sub-systems. However, perhaps the greatest improvement has been to ____ security. Windows XP suffered from ____ vulnerability to viruses and malware, and it will be interesting to see to what extent this has been addressed in Vista.

b)                Decide if these words (which appear in bold) are countable or uncountable, depending on how they are used in this context.

 Usage of some, any, no



кілька, декілька

They made some mistakes — Вони зробили

 деякі помилки

We have some cheese — У нас є сир

Some of them were busy — Деякі з них були


дехто, деякий

який-небудь, якийсь

Примітка. Якщо some використовується разом із незлічуваним

 іменником, він на українську мову не перекладається:

Buy some bread — Купи хліба.




Did they make any mistakes? — Вони

 зробили які-небудь помилки?

Give me any book — дайте мені будь-яку


We have not any bread — У нас немає хліба

They did not make any mistakes —

Вони не зробили ніяких помилок


будь-який, який-небудь


Примітка *Займенник any здебільшого на українську мову не

 перекладається: Have you any sugar? У вас є цукор?

**У заперечному реченні




He has got no friends — У нього немає

 ніяких друзів

No student has come as yet — Жоден

 студент ще не прийшов




Примітка. *Як засіб заперечення no при перекладі потребує

 подвійного заперечення

Exercise 16G.
Translate into Ukrainian, paying attention to the table:

a)                1. Somebody has taken my pen. 2. I saw something dark in the garden. 3. Someone must go with him. 4. He lives somewhere near our house.

b)                1. Do you know anybody (anyone) here? 2. There is not anybody (anyone) in the office. 3. Do you want anything else? 4. I can’t see anything. 5. You can do anything you like. 6. Did you go anywhere yesterday? 8. You can buy the book anywhere.

c)                 1. Nobody will believe you. 2. I saw none of my friends. 3. It means nothing to him. 4. I have nowhere to go.

Exercise 17G.
Translate into Ukrainian:

1.     We have some friends living there.

2.     There is no milk left.

3.     We found some new words in the text.

4.     We have heard some news that might interest you.

5.     Have you any books published on the subject?

6.     Have you noticed any changes?

7.     Have you got any money on you?

8.     Is there any letter for me?

9.     There is not any butter left.

10.                       We don’t use any new technologies while programming.

(S) Speaking (block II):

Exercise 2S.
Read and translate the text:


The official name of our country is Ukraine. It is a sovereign state. It has its own territory, division, higher and local bodies of power, government, national emblem, state flag and anthem.

Ukraine is located in the south-eastern part of Central Europe. The geographical centre of Europe is located near the town of Rakhiv in Zakarpatska Region.

Ukraine is one of the largest countries of Europe. Its area is about 603.7 thousand square kilometers.

It stretches for 893 km from North to South and for 1316 km from West to East. Ukraine borders on the Russian Federation in the east and in the north-east, on Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Rumania in the west, on Moldova in the south -west and on Belarus in the north.

Its land borders stretch for 5450 km and its sea borders - for 1050 km. The total length of the borders is 6500 kilometers. The geographical position of Ukraine is favourable for its relations with countries of Europe and with countries all over the world.

The population of Ukraine is about 46 million people. The representatives of more than 110 nationalities and ethnic groups live in our country. Ukrainians make up 75 per cent of the population. The national (official) language of our country is Ukrainian. The national monetary unit is hryvnya.


The largest part of Ukraine's territory is flat. Plains make up 95 per cent of its area. The northern and the central parts of the plains are covered with forests. Ukrainian steppes are located in the south and in the south-west of the country.

The only mountains are the Ukrainian Carpathians in the west and the Crimean mountains in the extreme south.

The southern part of Ukraine is washed by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. There are about 23 thousand long and short rivers in our country. Most of them flow southward. The major Ukrainian rivers are the Dnipro, the Dnister and the Bug, which fall into the Black Sea, and the Donets, which falls into the Don. Rivers and a great number of lakes and ponds provide Ukraine with water.

The animal and the vegetable world of Ukraine is rather rich. Ukraine is considered to be the land of remarkable beauty. From the point of view of its natural resources Ukraine is a rich country. It is rich in coal, lead, oil, iron ore and building materials. The natural conditions are very good for life and for work.

In 1991 Ukraine was proclaimed an independent state. Nowadays it is a free independent country. By the form of the government, Ukraine combines the elements of presidential and parliamentary republic.

President is the head of the state. A president is elected by the people of the country at a general elections for a period of five years. A president cannot be younger than 35 years of age, must be a citizen of Ukraine and must live in the country for no less than 10 years and he must master the national (official) language.

The highest body of state power is Parliament. Ukrainian Parliament is called the Supreme (Verkhovna) Rada. It consists of one chamber only and includes 450 people's deputies. The laws of the country are made by them. The chairman of the Supreme Rada is elected by its members.

The Cabinet of Ministers is responsible for the realization of laws adopted by the Supreme Rada. It is headed by the Prime-Minister. He is elected for a period of 4 years and he forms his cabinet to his liking. On the 28th of June, 1996 at its fifth session the Supreme Rada adopted the Constitution of Independent Ukraine - the main law of our country.

The state flag of Ukraine is blue and yellow. The national emblem of our country is a Trident (Tryzub).

Ukraine is divided into regions and districts. There are 24 regions and the Republic of Crimea in Ukraine. All the regions, the Republic of Crimea, districts as well as towns, cities and villages have the local bodies of power — regional, district, city, town or village Radas.

Like any other country, Ukraine has big cities. The biggest and the most important of them is Kyiv – the capital of Ukraine. It has a population of 2.6 million people and occupies an area of 790 square kilometers. It is the political centre of Ukraine. It is the seat of the Supreme Rada, the Cabinet of Ministers and the residence of the president. Kyiv is also economic and industrial centre of our country. There are a lot of banks, business offices, and industrial enterprises there.

It is the scientific and cultural centre of Ukraine. A great number of institutes, colleges, schools of various kinds, theatres, cinemas, museums and libraries are located there. It is the seat of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

Kyiv is also famous for its beauty, for its wonderful streets, lots of chestnut trees and flowers all over the city. It is situated on the Dnipro River that makes it still more beautiful.

Kharkiv is the former capital of Ukraine. It is an important industrial centre, one of the biggest transport junctions. Donetsk is a big cultural centre and a coal-mining centre. Dniepropetrovsk is a large machine building centre and an important metallurgical centre.

Odesa is a big seaport and a resort place, a centre of machine-building and food industries. Lviv is a large cultural, scientific and industrial centre. Zaporizhzhya is a metallurgical, automobile, agricultural machine-building centre.

As Ukraine is rather a big country its climate is different in various parts of the country. The climate on the territory along the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov is much warmer. The hottest region is the Crimea which has a subtropical climate. The weather there is very hot in summer and rather warm in winter. You can see a lot of evergreen trees and bushes in the Crimea. The rest of the country has a moderately continental climate.

Winter is rather mild with no severe frosts but with snow falls everywhere. The rivers and the lakes freeze. Winter sets in December. The coldest month is January. The temperature is about 15-20 degrees below zero. The coldest region is that in the north and in the north-east. Bun it often happens that winters are rainy and mild.

Exercise 3S.
Answer the questions:

1.     Which region do you live in? What regions surround it?

2.     Which countries border Ukraine? How many of them used to belong to the Soviet Union?

3.     Look at the Ukrainian banknotes. Which regions and landmarks are shown on them?

4.     What is the status of Ukraine?

5.     Where is Ukraine (the centre of Europe) located?

6.     What is the population of Ukraine?

7.     What is the territory of Ukraine like?

8.     Where are the mountains located? 

9.     What are the major Ukrainian rivers?

10.                       What natural resources is Ukraine rich in?

11.                       When was Ukraine proclaimed an independent state?

12.                       What kind of republic is it?

13.                       Who can be elected a president?

14.                       Who makes the laws of our country?

15.                       What is the Cabinet of Ministers responsible for?

16.                       Who heads the Cabinet?

17.                       When was the Constitution of Ukraine adopted?

18.                       What is the state flag of Ukraine like?

19.                       What is the national emblem of our country?

20.                       How many regions are there in Ukraine?

21.                       What are the local bodies of state power called?

22.                       When was Kyiv founded?

23.                       Why is the climate different in various parts of Ukraine?

24.                       What is the hottest (the coldest) region?

25.                       What is the climate of the Crimea (the rest of Ukraine)?

26.                       What is winter (spring, summer, autumn) like?

Exercise 4S.
Finish the sentences:
1. Ukraine is located in ...
2. Ukraine borders on...
3. Ukrainians make up 75...
4. The only mountains are ...
5. The major Ukrainian rivers are...
6. President is the head of...
7. Ukrainian parliament is called...
8. The laws of the country are made by...
9. The Constitution was adopted on...
10. The state flag of Ukraine is...
11. Ukraine is divided into...
12. Kyiv is...

Exercise 5S.
Fill in the gaps in the text below with the following figures. Translate the text.

1654            46 million              450             24               1991            603.700

Exercise 6S.
Read the text below and match the words in bold to their definitions:

1.     Independent and having the power to make decisions

2.     Those data show their choice or opinion in an election

3.     Joining the parts of a divided group, party or country together again

4.     People who have a legal right to live in a particular country

5.     Announced something officially or publicly

6.     Members of the Ukrainian Parliament

Important Information and Statistics

On 24th August, 1) ____, Ukraine proclaimed its independence from the USSR and began to construct a democratic state. This was a historic moment for Ukraine as for many years its independence and culture had been in danger.

Since the collapse of Kyivan Rus’, present day Ukraine had been under pressure from Tatar, Polish and Turkish invaders, all of them attempting to bring the people and land under one rule. This threat was reduced with the reunification of Ukraine and Russia in 2) ____. This event happened at the Pereyaslav Rada under Bohdan Khmenytsky's guidance. For more than 250 years Ukraine was part of Russia, and in 1922, it became one of the republics of the Soviet Union.

Ukraine is the largest country in Europe. Recent figures show that 3) ____ people live in Ukraine, giving it the fifth largest population in Europe. Ethnic Ukrainians constitute 75 percent of Ukraine's population. Other ethnic groups that are widespread in Ukraine are Russians (22 percent), Belarussians, Poles, Jews, Bulgarians, Hungarians and Tatars (less than 1 percent each).

The territory of Ukraine covers 4) ____ square kilometers. Historically and ethnically, Ukraine's territory is divided into several zones: Polissia in the North, Serednya Prydnipryanshchyna along the central part of the Dnipro River, Podillia in the South-West, along the rivers Pivdenny Boug and Dnistr, Slobozhanshchyna in the East, Volyn in the North-West, the Carpathians and Bukovyna in the West and Crimea in the South.

According to the Constitution of Ukraine, the territorial structure of the country is composed of 5) ____ oblasts (regions) and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea with further subdivision into rayons (districts), cities (each having its own rayons), settlements and villages. The cities of Kyiv and Sevastopol possess a special status determined by law. Every city has a Mayor and a Mayor's office.


The Structure of the National Government

Under the Constitution, the powers of the government are divided into three branches - the legislative (1), which consists of the Verkhovna Rada (the Ukrainian Parliament), the executive (2), headed by the President with the Cabinet of Ministers as the highest body and the judicial (3), which is led by the Supreme Court.

The parliament has one house that is represented by 6) ____ people's deputies elected for four year terms by the citizens of Ukraine. The Verkhovna Rada's main function is making laws.

The President is elected directly by the voters for a term of five years with no more than two full terms. The President of Ukraine secures state independence, human rights and freedoms. The executive power in oblasts and rayons is exercised by local state administrations. Their heads are appointed by the President and are responsible to him.

Justice in Ukraine is exercised entirely by the courts. It is administered by the Constitutional court and by courts of general jurisdiction. The Supreme Court of Ukraine is the highest body of general jurisdiction. The Autonomous Republic of Crimea has its own parliament and government.

Exercise 7S.
Read the sentences below and mark them T (True) or F (False).
Correct the false ones:

1.     The executive power is headed by the Supreme Court.

2.     The Verkhovna Rada's main function is making laws.

3.     Tne Prime-Minister secures state independence, human rights and freedoms.

4.     The heads of the local state administrations are elected by the people.

Exercise 8S.
Read, translate and memorize the text about Kyiv:

Kyiv — the capital of Ukraine

Kyiv, the capital of Ukraine, is one of the oldest cities of Eastern Europe. It was founded about 1550 years ago by Prince Kiy and was named after him.

There are many places of historic interest in it. Among them there are the Kyivo-Pechersk Monastery (arose in the 11th century), St. Sophia’s Cathedral (1037), the Golden Gates (the remains of only one of them has come down to us). The tsar’s palace and St. Andrew’s Church were built after the design of V. Rastrelli in 17-18 centuries.

Kyiv is situated on the hilly right bank and low left bank of the Dnipro River.

It is one of the most beautiful cities of Europe. One half of its territory is occupied by parks and gardens. It is also the largest city of the country with population of about 3 million. Kyiv is a historic, political, religious, scientific and cultural centre of Ukraine. It is the seat of the highest body of state power of Ukraine, the Verkhovna (Supreme) Rada.

A large part of Ukraine’s industrial output is produced by Kyiv’s enterprises: motorcycles, tape-recorders, excavators, industrial machines, electric equipment, furniture, clothing, foodstuff, etc.

Kyiv is a cultural and academic centre of Ukraine. Research institutes, the National Scientific Library, the Central Botanical Garden, and the Main Astronomical Observatory are located there.

There is a great number of secondary schools, universities, institutes, and colleges as well as the National Academy of Sciences there.

Kyiv’s cultural life is rich and varied. There are many theatres, museums, and exhibitions in it. There are government-funded museums in Kyiv: the Natural History Museum, the Historical Museum; the museums of art: National Art, Ukrainian Decorative Folk Art, Western and Eastern Art; some literary-memorial museums.

There are also museums organised and run by private individuals. The main professional theatres in Kyiv are: the National Opera, the Ukrainian Drama Theatre, the Operetta Theatre, the Puppet Theatre and many others. They are greatly appreciated by the citizens of Kyiv and the guests of the city.

Kyiv is famous for its monuments. The monument to Prince Volodymyr in the picturesque park on the Dnipro hills has become a symbol of the ancient city. Many monuments have been erected in Kyiv’s squares, parks and other public places. Kyiv is the Hero-City. In the park of Immortal Glory there is an obelisk in honour of those who died in the Second World War.

The main street in Kyiv is Khreshchatyk Street which looks like a park lane: it is a river of green and gold trees from early spring till late autumn.

During the Great Patriotic War this street was almost completely destroyed and it was rebuilt in the post-war years. There are many fine buildings in Khreshchatyk, which form the unique architectural ensemble.

Kyiv, the old and ever young city, is the pride and glory of the Ukrainian people.